Saturday, August 31, 2019
* The proportion of Christians in the Australian population continues to decline. * Internationally, the proportion of Christians in developing countries is tending to increase, whereas the proportion of Christians in developed countries generally is decreasing. * This paper first provides a brief overview of the current Australian demographic data and trends in relation to Christian denominations and other religious groups over the past 100 years. * Based on ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s past contribution to Australian society, it then posits a framework for a way forward to contribute to the current and future issues and problems confronting Christianity in Australian society. * Christianity had a significant impact on education and public morality in Australia whin the years of 1788-1900. In relation to public morality, I discuss the significance that the Christian church had on Australian society in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s by the establishing of the Temperance movement as well as several other actions involving education. * While Christianity played a crucial part in all aspects of Australian society throughout the pre-federation years 1788 to 1900, it had a significant impact on education and public morality. * The influence of Christianity in education was evident through the establishment of a separate education system and, in public morality the formation of the temperance movement as well as other actions. * Education was greatly influenced by Christianity during 1788 through to 1900. Settlers concerned to leave religious divisions in Britain believed that ties between church and state should be eradicated and that churches be supported by their own followers. * Subsequently, with numerous denominations supporting this idea, concerns were partly met by the granting of financial aid to the major religious groups, including the Church of England. * Individuals churches used this aid to maximise its religious and educational influence. * Governor Bourke later extended the state financial aid and attempted to introduce government schools based on the national system in his native Ireland. * However, non-Anglican Protestants, who had formed in 1835 a society for promoting schools where the Bible would be a basis for general education, insisted on its wider use in the proposed national schools than was permitted in the Irish system. * Catholics supported the GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal which further angered the Protestants. The successive alliance between the Anglicans and the Protestant denominations favourably brought about an anti-Catholic move to condemn concessions to a religious minority at the expense of national school systems based on the religious teachings of the Bible. * In the past, Christianity has made a sustained and valuable contribution to Australian communities. * To focus on the changing religious demographics in Australia may be discouraging for many Christians, but Christianity again can make a valuable contribution to contemporary societies Ã¢â¬â if its attention is focussed on the community and not on itself. * This paper proposes that Christians learn from the past and, rather than introspectively focussing on maintaining the two first positions described above, accept the third position and engage with existing communities by utilising communal practical life-style Christian principles. * Perhaps from this new perspective, Christianity will become relevant and re-invigorate the traditional (Christian) Australian values as Described by Linder (2006), values of justice and a fair go, self-sacrifice for the good of the community, mateship based on selflessness, and neighbor love.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Book Report Trevor Mendham While i was in the library with the class. Shape-Changers the Chronicles of the Cheysuli written by Jennifer Roberson had caught my interest. This book was published in 1984 while the author was living in a castle. Jennifer Roberson has said that the eight book series had been inspired by the castle in Wales. Although this book is part of a large series, I strongly believe this book is about the choices that we make. The main character Alix has the choice to play it safe or to take a risk and truly find the answers she seeks. I personally would enjoy continue reading this series. Although the book was very short and left quite a few lose ends for the next book. This book set in the land of Cheysuli within the Kingdom of Homana. Alix the daughter of a man who was a religion leader whom resigned after the war on shape-changers started. After this he started running a under-croft, where dead body are displayed for the public viewing, taking a major reduction in wage and honourable work. Alix has fallen for the prince named Carillon a childhood friend, from the fathers previous profession. Soon after they are captured while walking in the woods by the shape-changers. Alix finds that she is half blooded shape-changer and has to decide to accept who she is, and lose the love of price Carillon and be at war with his race. This story was very odd but was a good book. The fiction of this story is tied to reality in a very unique way, that is very effective in making the story not feel very fantasy. This feature made the book truly more enjoyable. Other writing techniques like not having any foreshadowing. The book keeps you guessing until the very end. Even within the story parts that I had never seen coming, Like releasing the prince. Allowing Alix to run away and eventually return on curiosity. I would recommend anyone who wants a quick read of a quality story. Overall I would give this story eight out of ten stars without reading the rest of the series.
Boeing Bond Analysis Presented to Dr. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Prepared by Filipe Ferro October 9, 2012 Table of Contents Boeing Company3 Bond Issue3 Unsystematic Risk4 Principal Repayment4 Debt to Invested Capital4 Debt to Equity4 Current & Quick Ratios5 Interest Repayment5 Times Interest Earned5 Credit Position6 Competitor Analysis6 General Dynamics6 Northrop Grumman7 Systematic Risk7 Market Responsiveness7 Duration8 Modified Duration9 Accuracy of Rating9 Interest Rate Expectations9 Summary10 Appendix11 Descriptive Statistics11 Regression Analysis11 Duration & Modified Duration12References13 Boeing Company Boeing is a manufacturer of aircrafts and national defense equipment making it a member of the Aerospace & Defense industry. It was founded in Seattle, Washington on July 15, 1916. It is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Commercial aircraft include the 737, 747, 777, and very recently, the 787. Military products consist of high-dexterity and stealthy aircraft such as a the A-10 Th underbolt II and highly-efficient and powerful satellites such as the Boeing 601. 1 Its biggest competitors are Northrop Grumman, General Dynamics, and Airbus.According to Morningstar, Boeing employed 171,700 people and revenue reached $69 billion in 2012. 2 Bond Issue The bond I have chosen to analyze is a debenture with a maturity date of August 15, 2021. Morningstar shows this bond issue consists of 400 million $1,000 par value bonds with 398 of them outstanding. The bond is a semi-annual fixed coupon bond with an annual rate of 8. 75%. The accrual start date was August 15, 1991. The original life of the bond was 30 years and the remaining life as of October 2012 is a little over 8 years and 10 months.This bond issue is non-callable, non-putable, non-convertible, and it is not subject to Rule 144A. These bonds are currently selling at 135. 20% of par value as of September 29, 2012, making their price $1,352. Standard & PoorÃ¢â¬â¢s NetAdvantage rates this issue as an A. Its curr ent yield ratio is 6. 47. I have always been enthusiastic about airplanes. My first experiences in flight were in Boeing aircrafts. I also chose this bond issue because of BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s large size, reputation, and financial security.Selecting a debenture is risky and requires strong financial security since the only security backing it is the issuing companyÃ¢â¬â¢s credit rating. With a current yield of 6. 47 resulting from the relatively high coupon rate of 8. 75%, this is a great bond for a fixed income (coupon pays $87. 50 annually). Unsystematic Risk Principal Repayment Debt to Invested Capital In recent years, BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s debt to capital ratios have been 42% for 2007, 112. 9% for 2008, 85. 2% for 2009, 80. 6% for 2010, and 74. 0% for the end of 2011. BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s total debt to invested capital ratio is 65. 3% (as of June 2012)3. Standard & PoorÃ¢â¬â¢s calculates this as (total debt)/(total equity + total debt), 2,466,000+8,735,0005,892,000+11,201,000. This means th at debt makes up about 65% of all invested capital. Boeing still has 35% of capital that is not tied to debt. This is good compared to the last few years. This ratio is on a downward trend. Debt to Equity BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s total debt to equity ratio is 1. 51 (as of June 2012) 3, meaning that for every $1 in equity there is $1. 51 of debt. This is calculated as 8,735,0005,804,000 on the balance sheet.According to Standard & PoorÃ¢â¬â¢s Industry Survey, BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s debt to equity ratio at the end of 2011 was 2. 85. The Aerospace & Defense industry average from 1981 to 2011 was 0. 90. 4 The industry survey states that BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s high debt to equity ratio is due to its Ã¢â¬Å"financial armsÃ¢â¬ since it has a large financing department. It is also probably due to its new model plane, the 787 Dreamliner, which requires a relatively expensive manufacturing processes Ã¢â¬â unibody parts made up of composite carbon fiber materials Ã¢â¬â and advanced electronics and sensors . These higher costs require raising more capital than the average model plane.While debt has priority over equity in being repaid, debentures are at the bottom of the list, which is why this high ratio may be a concern for holders of BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s bond issues. If bankruptcy occurs, debentures will be the last of debt holders to get paid. Although it is not exactly good to have this somewhat high ratio, knowing that Boeing has a brand new and appealing aircraft reassures that positive future cash flows will cover this financial leverage. S&PÃ¢â¬â¢s NetAdvantage highlights the potential sales to emerging airlines from China and airlines with old worn out planes in the U. S. and Europe.S&PÃ¢â¬â¢s industry survey states Ã¢â¬Å"China, India, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, will drive growth in global air travel and demand for new aircraft. Ã¢â¬ 4 The market for aircraft purchases looks like it will grow in the coming years, thus Boeing will have greater oppor tunities for sales. Current & Quick Ratios The current assets to current liabilities ratio was 1. 22 for the 4th quarter of 2011, which means every $1 in current liabilities is covered by $1. 22 in current assets. Boeing has enough current assets to pay off all its current liabilities if it needed to do so. The current ratio has been 0. for 2007, 0. 8 for 2008, 1. 1 for 2009, and 1. 1 for 2010. The current ratio has been on an upward trend since 2008 which would imply added financial security in forecasts. But the current ratio assumes that a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current assets are highly liquid. This might not be the case with Boeing, whose inventory is made up of large and expensive aircraft and is not as highly traded as smaller inventory such as food in a grocery store. The quick-ratio would be more accurate for Boeing, which is 0. 39. Boeing Ã¢â¬â using only its instantly liquid assets Ã¢â¬â would not be able to pay off all of its short-term liabilities if it was required to. Interest Repayment Times Interest Earned As of December 31, 2011, Boeing had a net income of $4 billion and an interest expense of $498 million. Its times interest earned for the year of 2011 was 4,011+498498=9. 05. From 2006 to 2010, times interest earned has been 4. 72, 21. 7, 6. 12, 4. 94, and 7. 42 respectively. From these figures, it seems that BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s TIE ratio has been on an upward trend since the 2009 ratio of 4. 94. The most recent ratio of 9. 05 suggests that Boeing is capable of paying its interest expense since its profit is over 9 times greater than its interest expense. Credit PositionAccording to Mergent Online, Boeing has never had a bankruptcy proceeding of any type (chapter 11 restructuring, etc), which implies that it has never defaulted on any of its debts. Mergent also states Boeing Ã¢â¬Å"had $4,600,000,000 available under credit line agreementsÃ¢â¬ 5. Considering Boeing already has $12,371,000,000 in long-term debt, $4,600,000,000 is still considerab le amount. Boeing is still within reasonably comfortable limits within its credit line usage. In addition, Standard & PoorÃ¢â¬â¢s Bond Guides shows that it has rated this issue of BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s bonds in the A range for the last 4 years.Overall, Boeing seems to have good character. Many of BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s bond issues have been rated as A+ over the last 4 years. Competitor Analysis General Dynamics General Dynamics currently has 2 outstanding bond issues, both rated A by Standard & PoorÃ¢â¬â¢s. Its debt to invested capital ratio in the 4th quarter of 2011 was 22. 6% compared to 74% for Boeing6. General DynamicsÃ¢â¬â¢ assets are tied to a much lower amount of debt than Boeing. The current ratio for General Dynamics is 1. 4 as of 2011 while BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s was 1. 2. In addition to its low debt to capital ratio, its debt to equity ratio is also low at 3,930,00013,232,000=0. 0. BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s debt to equity ratio is a little higher at 1. 51. With a higher debt to equity ratio, Bo eingÃ¢â¬â¢s leverage is slightly larger. BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s bond issue may have a little more risk of being subordinated by other bonds. A low debt to equity ratio reflects a financial healthy company because it means that it needs a relatively small amount of financial leverage. Times interest earned for the year of 2011 was 2,252+155155=15. 53. Again, this makes General DynamicsÃ¢â¬â¢ bonds less risky. In contrast, Boeing has more liquidity in its stock at an average trading volume of 4,344,230.General DynamicsÃ¢â¬â¢ average trading volume is only 1,642,0007 which means General DynamicsÃ¢â¬â¢ ratios are subject to more volatility. With a higher trading volume and a new, cutting edge plane, this may offset BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s higher risk compared to General Dynamics. Northrop Grumman The current ratio as of the 4th quarter of 2011 for Northrop Grumman was 1. 4. Its debt to equity ratio was 3,948,00010,715,000=0. 37. Times interest earned was 2,086+221221=10. 44. 8 Like General Dyn amics, Northrop GrummanÃ¢â¬â¢s ratios also suggest lower unsystematic risk compared to Boeing.Although the bonds may also be more volatile because just like General Dynamics, Northrop Grumman has a much lower average trading volume (at 1,533,070) than Boeing does. Systematic Risk Market Responsiveness Date| YTM-Boeing| YTM-Avg. A Rated Market| Mar-08| 5. 28%| 6. 24%| Jun-08| 6. 09%| 6. 43%| Sep-08| 6. 01%| 6. 55%| Dec-08| 7. 16%| 6. 70%| Mar-09| 6. 50%| 6. 66%| Jun-09| 5. 92%| 6. 39%| Sep-09| 4. 96%| 5. 56%| Dec-09| 4. 69%| 5. 77%| Mar-10| 5. 13%| 5. 80%| Jun-10| 4. 69%| 5. 44%| Sep-10| 3. 67%| 5. 01%| Dec-10| 3. 89%| 5. 52%| Mar-11| 4. 56%| 5. 52%| Jun-11| 3. 93%| 5. 26%| Sep-11| 3. 66%| 4. 54%| Dec-11| 3. 0%| 4. 40%| Mar-12| 3. 32%| 4. 51%| Jun-12| 2. 63%| 4. 14%| Sep-12| 2. 56%| Ã¢â¬â. Ã¢â¬â| Below is a list of BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s yields to maturity and the AA-rated bond market yields to maturity according to the S&P Bond Guide: Yield to maturity has been on a downward trend since December 2008 for both Boeing and the rest of the AA-rated bond market. It seems like the YTMs for Boeing and the rest of the market move together. The null hypothesis for this situation would be that the market movement has no correlation to BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s movement in YTMs; therefore the slope would be 0 for a linear regression of the scatter plot below.The alternative hypothesis is that the market does have some influence. The null hypothesis can be tested with some calculations. The test statistic is calculated by taking the value of the beta 0. 96 and dividing it by the standard error of 0. 11132, we get 8. 62. Using the test statistic and a level of significance of 10%, the corresponding P-Value is 0. 0000000007. Anything to the left of the 10% level of significance is a rejection of the null hypothesis. The P-Value is well below the level of significance of 10% and therefore the null hypothesis should be rejected.This means that the population coefficient of determinati on is not equal to 0 according to our sample of 18 periods. The sample yields a coefficient of determination of 0. 91. BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s movement in YTM can be explained by a movement in market YTM 91% of the time. BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s YTMs have a strong positive correlation with the marketÃ¢â¬â¢s YTMs and makes its bond issues just slightly less volatile to movements in the market. Duration This bond issue has a par value of $1,000 and a coupon payment of 8. 75% semi-annually. The coupon payment is $87. 50 and the latest rate for the AA bond class, according to the Wall Street Journal, is 1. 3%9 as of October 2, 2012. The present value of this bond is $1,569. 44. The weighted present value of this bond is $11,157. 82. The current duration for this bond issue is 7. 11 years. It will take a little over 7 years for this bond to cover the initial investment. Modified Duration The modified current duration is calculated as the current duration divided by 1 + (bond class interest rate). In th is case it is 7. 111+0. 0183=6. 98. This means that for every 1% increase in market interest rates, this bond issue will go down 6. 98% in value. Accuracy of RatingStandard & PoorÃ¢â¬â¢s definition for an A rating is defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"strong capacity to meet financial commitments, but somewhat susceptible to adverse economic conditions and changes in circumstances. With a beta of 0. 63 and a current duration of 6. 98%, it seems like the rating of A is accurate according to the Ã¢â¬Å"somewhat susceptible to adverse economic conditionsÃ¢â¬ part of the definition. For the Ã¢â¬Å"strong capacity to meet financial commitmentsÃ¢â¬ , I also feel like this fits Boeing since it has a times interest earned ratio of 9. 05 and a current ratio of 1. 22. Interest Rate ExpectationsAccording to the Federal Reserve Board press release of September 13, 2012, the announced quantitative easing program will keep bond prices high and interest rates low, at least for the short-term (next year). Also, the economy has expanded somewhat in recent months, but still at a lower than expected rate10. This suggests that interest rates will remain mostly unchanged since there is not a lot of spending. The Washington PostÃ¢â¬â¢s front-page article on October 2, 2012, stated that Americans Ã¢â¬Å"do not want to take any risks with their money Ã¢â¬â even as the government is encouraging risk-takingÃ¢â¬ 11.According to the Fisher Effect, when expected inflation rises, interest rates will rise12. With low inflation expectations, we can expect a continuation of low interest rates. Instead of trending they will be Ã¢â¬Å"rangingÃ¢â¬ . As of October 2, 2012, a 10-year Treasury bond had a yield of 1. 64% while AA-Rated bonds had a yield of 1. 83%. The spread is 0. 19. The present value of a single bond from this issue is $1,569. 44. With interest rates rising only 10 basis points by the end of this year and with a modified duration of 6. 98, the present value will drop by 0. 698%. $1,569. 44(1 Ã¢â¬â 0. 00698) = $1,558. 9. The estimated yield to maturity for Boeing one year from now with a 20 basis point increase is YTM-BA = -3. 2949 + 1. 4426(4. 34) + 0. 001 = 2. 97% for Boeing, up from 2. 63%. 4. 34% is 20 basis points above the last market YTM data point of 4. 14%. This small rise in interest rates means BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s bond issue is going to drop slightly in price. Summary I would definitely buy this bond despite some of its shortcomings. Boeing may be heavily leveraged at the moment, but it still has other ratios that show its financial health, such as market capitalization, the debt to equity ratio of 1. 1 and the current ratio of 1. 22. Additionally, BoeingÃ¢â¬â¢s new model airplane, the 787 Dreamliner, is a positive prospect for future financial health. According to MergentÃ¢â¬â¢s records, Boeing has never defaulted on its loans before and with 96 years of history I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t expect a default any time soon. Appendix Descriptive Statistics YTM-BA%| Ã | YTM-A%| Ã | | Ã | Ã | Ã | Mean| 4. 755| Mean| 5. 58| Standard Error| 0. 291509762| Standard Error| 0. 193077925| Median| 4. 69| Median| 5. 54| Mode| 4. 69| Mode| 5. 52| Standard Deviation| 1. 236771176| Standard Deviation| 0. 19160259| Sample Variance| 1. 529602941| Sample Variance| 0. 671023529| Kurtosis| -0. 700358347| Kurtosis| -1. 043305373| Skewness| 0. 246024371| Skewness| -0. 261513425| Range| 4. 53| Range| 2. 56| Minimum| 2. 63| Minimum| 4. 14| Maximum| 7. 16| Maximum| 6. 7| Sum| 85. 59| Sum| 100. 44| Count| 18| Count| 18| Regression Analysis Duration & Modified Duration References 1Boeing. (1995). A-10 Thunderbolt II. Retrieved 2012 05-October from http://www. boeing. com/defense-space/support/maintenance/a10/index. html 2Morningstar. (2012, September 28). Boeing Co BA. (N.Dihora, Editor) Retrieved September 29, 2012, from Morningstar: http://www. morningstar. com 3Standard&Poor's. (2012, October 02). Boeing. Retrieved October 02, 2012, from Standard ;Poor's NetAdvantage: http://www. netadvantage. standardandpoors. com 4Tortoriello, R. (2012 26-July). Industry Surveys: Aerospace & Defense. Retrieved 2012 05-October from Standard&Poor's: http://www. netadvantage. standardandpoors. com. proxymu. wrlc. org/NASApp/NetAdvantage/showIndustrySurveyPDF. do? loadIndSurFromMenu=pdf 5Mergent Online. (2011, December 31). Boeing Co. (The) (NYS:BA): Long Term Debt.Retrieved October 1, 2012, from Mergent Online : www. new. mergentonline. com. proxymu. wrlc. org/companydetail. php? pagetype=longtermdebt;compnumber=1048 6Standard;Poor's. (2011, 12 31). Genl Dynamics. Retrieved 10 02, 2012, from NetAdvantage: http://www. netadvantage. standardandpoors. com. proxymu. wrlc. org/NASApp/NetAdvantage/cp/companyFinancials. do 7Yahoo! (2012, October 03). General Dynamics (GD). Retrieved October 03, 2012, from Yahoo! Finance: http://www. finance. yahoo. com/q? s=GD 8Yahoo! (2012, October 03). Northrop Grumman Corportation (NOC). Retrieved October 03, 2 012, from
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Business Ethics - Essay Example Virtue theory encompasses the individual behavior of an individual in the wider realm of character to benefit self and others. It is similar to utilitarianism that supports the happiness of person irrespective of societal conventions unless it affects their acceptable moral concepts. However, in terms of addressing values, deontological ethics differs from other theories because it is concerned with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation or duty to do good (Trevino & Nelson, 2011). In other words, while virtue theory espouses a consequence as a result of contravening tolerable values, it imposes penalties on the person. This is different from deontological ethics or utilitarianism that largely focuses on the maximization of utility. According to Mill who started utilitarianism, reducing suffering through happiness is the role and responsibility of a person unlike the deontological perspective of attaining a good feeling as a duty. Similarly, in explaining moral concepts and values, all the theories concur especially in organizations on the need for workers to practice proper ethical conduct irrespective of the immediate gain. It, thus, becomes part of an organizational culture where morality emanates from each individual. Another interesting aspect of the theories involves the possible ramifications in cases of slow implementation especially in organizational contexts. In my personal experience, for example, I think virtue theory explains ethics better than utilitarianism does to morality. This is because while the former revolves around character traits and habits of an individual, utilitarianism is an innate feeling that lacks respect for either good or bad. Contrastingly, while moral concepts in society are defined by people and culture, deontological ethics fails to demonstrate how free will contributes to a universal conduct found in most companies. It also fails to acknowledge the basic tenets of managing ethical challenges especially when they
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Critically assess the proposition that collective bargaining is the most appropriate channel to redress the power imbalance within the employment relationship - Essay Example With the cases of Company A and B, such demands can be regarded as a non-issue since it is the right of every employee to be provided with their basic needs. However, the unwillingness of employers to grant the aforementioned requests pose a big problem, and might eventually strain the relationship between the management and its numerous employees. Without a proper venue to hear both parties, a collective decision may render impossible to happen. If this happens, employees would have no other choice but to go to the streets and hold the picket lines until other labour unions or government agencies get hold of their case. Hence, there is a need to emphasise the fact that every company or organisation must acknowledge the rights of their employees. And the only way to meet halfway through the conflict is through a collective bargaining agreement between the two parties involved (Cornell, 2007). In the UK alone, collective bargaining has been exercised by at least 15.5 million employees from a manpower population of about 17.5 million since 1945 (Cite filename: Personnel & HRM). British Academic Beatrice Webb was said to have coined such term in her 1891 book entitled Ã¢â¬ËCooperative MovementÃ¢â¬â¢ in an effort to provide an alternative movement from individual bargaining between a company and its individual employee. However, it was the definition made by Allan Flanders, as a Ã¢â¬Ëprocess of rule-making leading to joint regulation in industry,Ã¢â¬â¢ that further refined the meaning of collective bargaining (Wikipedia, 2007). He even expanded the significance of the term as not only limited to determining pay but as well as in the (cite filename: employee relations): Ã¢â¬ ¦management acceptance of a style of employment relationship which is based on the legitimisation of the expression of the different interest within the organisation (conflict), on joint regulation (constraining the unilateral exercise of managerial authority over
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Food Piece - Coursework Example Everything to do with drinks was well looked into so that everyone could get into the party mood. The first phase came with a thud as it was taken as a lubricant just before the main dish. What I may describe as delicacy was right in front of me. Fresh fruit drinks prepared from a mixed blend forming a thick cocktail juice. This was the first I ever made with at most concentration. The whole-heartedness evident in my work of making the juice was so vivid that I felt like having a live clip production for an advertisement on making "home-made juices". The space taken by the juice in the gastro-intestinal tract could not be spared despite main dishes to follow. Considering that what was planned was overridden by the gasp for more, everyone was spoilt of options. A variety of soft drinks other than natural juice was available. Fizzy drinks were in plenty as the table went in rounds of drinks on a tasting mode. No one wanted to have a defined torch on any of the dishes for so far each that came next spackled with a welcoming aroma. Life was promising at this point; it felt heavenly as every glass of juice went down our throats bringing a cooling effect. Ideally, the juice served half of its purpose since others turned it into the main take in food of the meal. Other than balancing the diet it took space meant for a different dish. All that came into my mind was how this could be turned into a habitual event. I instilled a great deal of confidence regarding my capabilities when given a platform to demonstrate in the kitchen. Fruits for sure trace back to the Christian belief of being forbidden for the sweetness and discovery of wisdom. This is what rung into my mind before availing anything to the table for preparation of the real ingestion work that was to follow. The secret behind appetizing the family members lay squarely on the use of fruits. What lacked was a pictorial form of demonstrating the sweetness felt in the taste buds in everyones tongue. The only
Monday, August 26, 2019
Preditory Business Practice - Essay Example The bad thing with predatory lending that the borrower is left at a very big economic disadvantage, and this in most cases ends up disrupting their financial and economic stability. The fact that these bad loans are given to so many people mean that when these people are financially disrupted, the economy at the end will suffer (Moses, 2010). There is a debate of who should carry the blame and bear the responsibility with regard to such loans. The truth is that the loan originators use very aggressive and sometimes methods that border the illegal practices to be able to lure the borrowers. Most people do not have an inside understanding of how finances work and if the lenders refuse to disclose all the implications of the contract that a customer enters into when taking such a loan the borrower can end up entering into a predatory relationship. The loan may look attractive to the borrower while the truth is that it is very harmful and it will eventually place them at a point of disadvantage. However, both the borrower and the lender can be seen has bearing some level of reasonability when such a loan turns out to be a predatory loan. The lenders or the originators of these types of loans should bear some responsibility in that they cheat the customer to think that the loan is going to be simple to pay off and that it will leave them at an advantage. Most of these subprime lenders do not consider the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest when giving such loans but instead only look for ways to benefit them. In most cases, it is the loan brokers who benefit the most, sometimes even more that even the lenders themselves. In such a case, they have to bear the responsibility for not carrying out fair business activities. If a relationship between a lender (or a loan originator) can be said to be a contract, then the lenders may need to bear some of the
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Textual analysis of the man in the gray flannel suit by sloan wilson (american dream theme) - Essay Example The center of this novel revolves around the theme of an American Dream. The novel talks of every United States citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s need to win happiness by satisfying their material wants. This is despite the concept written by James Adams, America is the land in which life should be fuller and richer for everyone, depending on their ability and achievement (1931). The Rath family is very unsatisfied with their ordinary lives, referring to it as Ã¢â¬Å"a thousand petty shabinesses.Ã¢â¬ When Tom returns his wife Betsy wants a better life and future. She wants her husband to be the person he was before the war, a driven and ambitious individual. Her frustration in evident in her annoyance at mundane trivialities of life Ã¢â¬Å"Barbaras got the chicken pox and the washing machine broke down.Ã¢â¬ Despite serving his country, Tom Rath finds himself unsuccessful as far as the real world is concerned. His Harvard degree is of little consequence as his education is shunned. To keep his wife happy he applies for a job. TomÃ¢â¬â¢s heart is not in what he does. He seems to have no drive to succeed in the material world. When applying for this new job the evident lack of desire is evident in his half-hearted Ã¢â¬Å"it certainly sounds interesting.Ã¢â¬ All of this changes once Tom works in his new company. The American dream forces him to become part of the rat-race that seeks satisfaction through money. The irony of this idea becomes evident when Tom Rath applies for his job for a public relations position. Rath admits that he knows nothing about the job but this idea is ignored by the employer who claims Ã¢â¬Å"Who does? Youve got a clean shirt and you bathe everyday. Thats all there is to it.Ã¢â¬ This shows how skills are of no consequence in this life. It is only about presentation and how quickly that helps achieve the material goal. Soon money seems to be the only thing on TomÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. He keeps repeating it to himself Ã¢â¬Å"The important thing is to make moneyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Money, I need
Saturday, August 24, 2019
The notions of sentence, utterance and proposition - Essay Example Affirmative sentences, questions, exclamatory comments, etc. are commonly being used. Similarly if we try to understand deliberately about language we will have to learn about various concepts of language. Sentence can be viewed as the basic thing which supports and keeps alive a language. The most popular definition of a sentence is 'the expression of a complete thought'. Any 'thought', can be further specified more precisely. It is reasonable to argue that utterances also always express 'thoughts'. A general theory of utterance means that the speaker first casts a thought, and then expresses it as a clear utterance. This theory includes the theory of sentences. But it is unrealistic. "A sentence represents an eventuality. An eventuality is an action, or an event, or a state of affairs: something that happens or something that is. The sentence represents an eventuality by separating out the type of eventuality from the abstract and or concrete things which are involved in the eventuality. The type of the eventuality is typically represented by the verb, and the abstract or concrete things involved in the eventuality are prototypically represented by noun phrases. ... Subject is the part on which the action of the sentence is being predicated. Subject may also be called as the person who performs the action in the sentence. Now comes the predicate part which includes verb and complements. Subject of a sentence is the part acting upon the object of the verb. 1) Ram ate mango 2) Peter threw the ball are two good examples of sentence: In the first sentence "Ram" is subject, "mango" is object and "ate mango" is predicate. An utterance is a statement true in grammar but not true in meaning. It is widely being used in auditory communication. In other words, a sentence carries truth, an utterance holds no water. Utterance refers to a word, phrase or sentence expressed by a speaker on a particular occasion. It may or may not carry meaning. Examples of utterance 1. India can win the next football Olympics 2. UK will become monarchy soon. A proposition is as proposal advanced. It is a grammatically correct statement. A proposition is what is expressed by a sentence when that sentence is used to make a statement, that is, to say something, true or false. Literally it means to give a proposal or idea about something. Examples of proposition 1. Yoga should be made compulsory for all youngsters. 2. All students should get up before sunrise. One sentence can contain more than one utterance. Again one sentence can have one or more propositions. An utterance can be composed of a number of sentences. And also, one or more propositions can make an utterance. Example: The child utters: "I am hungry". This actually makes two propositions - 1) "I am hungry" and 2) "I must be given milk." The sentence "I am hungry" is thus an utterance and a preposition. According to Chris Potts "One or more proposition makes
Friday, August 23, 2019
CW - Essay Example The management has adopted the digital marketing system in which customers can quickly and conveniently look at all goods available and decide on which ones to buy. The online service launched facilitates this by enabling customers make their orders online and the goods delivered at their door step. This has boosted their sales specifically during the winter seasons in which people cannot move to the shopping center. This, in as much as it boosts the sales, has had its challenge in the expenses incurred during the delivery of small purchases to remote areas. In a bid to control this, the management encourages large purchases by offering promotions such as price cuts on large purchases made. Westfield has further increased its retailers to 140 and having over 300,000 products as a means of providing a variety of products to their customers so as not to allow them seek for other products from their competitors. This has enabled customers to compare a variety of products with those of their competitors in terms of price. The free shipping and returns offers have encouraged customers to shop without fear of having to use undesired goods after their delivery. This has increased their market share in the highly competitive business world. This, however, has called for employment of more staff members and training the existing employees on digital marketing. Westfield has also established a means of getting consumer feedback and desires by coming up with a social site of you-tube and face-book. From a list of 1,450 applicants, they chose an insider whose job is mainly to promote talks about shopping, smart buys, modern trends in fashion and the available offers and lifestyle (Dick & Merrett 2007, 308-318). He also responds to the customer queries and gives them direction on where to find relevant goods. This has enabled Westfield reach even a larger population
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The use of Graphic Novels as an Educational Tool - Research Paper Example One school of thought holds that the nineteenth-century Swiss Artist Rodolphe Topffer was the first cartoonist in the modern sense. Scott McCloud argues in Understanding Comics that the Bayeux Tapestry, which was probably created in the eleventh century, is an example of sequential visual narrative and therefore counts as comicsÃ¢â¬ (Wolk 29). However, it seems that the audience remains unaffected by such scholarly debate over inception of comics as a separate art form; rather they are more concerned over deriving the pleasure of reading and involving themselves with the ambiance created through color, expression, and beautifully crafted emotions. Prior to the Great War II, American comic market was mainly dominated by superheroes. However, the situation started changing gradually since the post-Great War II period, as the Japanese Manga comics first intruded the market. At the initial stage heroes with humane attribute did not have the capacity to combat the superheroes but it did not take much time that manga heroes emerged as triumphant against American superheroes. Another benefit of these Japanese manga comics was that those were highly appreciated by women and teenage girls section of the society. David Okum observes, Ã¢â¬Å"Japanese manga developed a strong following after World War II. The themes and stories reflect popular culture and national tastesÃ¢â¬ ¦.There is a wide audience of women, men, boys and that accepts comics and animation as just another medium of storytelling. Manga is produced for every possible group and interestÃ¢â¬ (Okum 8). No matter how much it is discussed about massive audience patronage i n favor of the graphic novels or manga, but the enormity of such popularity does not become clear unless we come across proper statistical data of the existing market condition of the manga comic.
Principles for implementing duty of care in health, social care or childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and young people settings Essay Example for Free
Principles for implementing duty of care in health, social care or childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and young people settings Essay Ci) Organisational requirements for dealing with complaints The setting should have Concerns and Complaints Policy in place. The main aim of it is to ensure that complaints procedure is properly and effectively implemented and that service users feel confident that their complaints and worries are listened to and acted upon promptly and fairly. When dealing with complaints the setting are to ensure that service users and their representatives, carers and visitors are aware of how to complain and that company provides easy to use opportunities for them to register complaints. A named person is responsible for administration of the procedure. Every written complaint is acknowledged within two working days investigations into written complaints are held within 28 days, all complaints are responded to in writing by the setting complaints are dealt with promptly, fairly and sensitively with due regard to the upset and worry that they cause to both staff and service users. The setting believes that complaints are best dealt with on a local level between the complainant and the home, but if either of the parties is not satisfied by a local process the case should be referred to the Care Quality Commission. Legal requirements for dealing with complaints Legal requirement for dealing with complaints is to follow Health and Social Care Act 2010 and National Minimum Standards complaint policy. These standards require care home managers to have clear procedures that enable service users to make their views, concerns and worries known, and that reassure them that appropriate action will be taken. Policies and procedures for dealing with suspicion or evidence of physical, financial or material, psychological or sexual abuse, neglect, self harm or degrading behaviour should also be put in place. Standards require that every care home: have clear and effective complaints procedure, which includes the stage of, and time scales, for the process. Other legal requirements to take into consideration Ã¢â¬ËData Protection Act 1998Ã¢â¬â¢, any information must be stored as stated in the act and all members of staff must be familiar with this and follow the guidelines. Human Rights Act, GSC codes of Practice and the Mental Capacity Act 2005 to empower and protect people who may lack capacity to make some decisions for themselves. Cii) Describe how best to respond to complaints from service users, other practitioners and the family of service users. Respond openly and appropriately to any comment or complaint made to you. If a complaint is made to you then you should ensure the individual making it understands how to use the complaints procedure, explain how it works and when they can expect to receive a response. Offer support in following the procedure to the individual making the complaint if appropriate. Advise your manager. Do not discourage individuals from making complaints or discuss complaints with colleagues or anyone other than your manager and do not promise to sort it out.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Creation of a Real Lightsaber Travis Wade Creating real-life sci-fi technology How might technology from popular sci-fi culture Ã¢â¬Å"Star WarsÃ¢â¬ be created in the near future? Technology comes from the thoughts of scientists and inventors, and imagination of science fiction writers. Throughout the sci-fi universes, whether in books or movies, they all have futuristic or even impossible sounding equipment. These large fandoms have set the bar for the future of technology and science, as their imagination to create these science-fiction pieces of technology, is based on what may be possible in the future. From the massive fandom and universe; such as Star Wars, the technology that could only be dreamed of, could one day become a reality. Many new scientific and technological discoveries and creations were first thought up by a writer, trying to sell a few books or even get a movie deal, and were since theorised by scientists to be possible. In the widely popular and extensively imagined universe of Star Wars, the main protagonists and antagonists, The Jedi and The SithÃ¢â¬ , use special weapons known as a Lightsaber. Lightsabers are specially made close combat weapons, imagined as a futuristic sword-like weapon, that have a small hilt and a retractable laser blade, capable of cutting through almost everything. In the Star Wars universe, the Lightsaber was made with a powerful battery cell, a focusing crystal and was imbued with the force, as shown in figure 1: (Figure 1, components of a Lightsaber) In real life, the possibilities of creating a Lightsaber are quite real, should a large jump in current technologies spontaneously happen. To create the blade of the Lightsaber, many a thought would be directed immediately towards a high powered laser, however, a highly charged beam of plasma would be more suitable, and easier to harness. Current technologies, such as a plasma cutter, produce super-heated plasma to cut many materials. To create plasma, a plasma cutter feeds inert gas through an electric arc, which is then sped up and released through a small hole to increase the temperature of the plasma. The plasma would need to be propelled to about 1.2 metres, (average length of a Lightsaber) and then the plasma would need to dissipate, as to not create a beam that continues through space. If the plasma beam were to arc around at the end of the beam, return to the hilt of the Lightsaber, and arc back around through the electric arc, which would repower it, as it goes back out, creating a plasma circuit. The width of the beam, an important area in the eyes of a true Star Wars fan, can be controlled due to a powerful magnetic field would need to be employed, to also ensure that the Lightsaber bounces off other Lightsabers, due to the repulsion of the magnetic field. Magnets would create a magnetic field, via Lorentz forces, that would separate the plasma from the chamber, preventing the plasma from melting the Ã¢â¬Å"hiltÃ¢â¬ . Lorentz forces are the combination of electric and magneticforceson apoint chargedue to electromagnetic fields. Lorentz forces would come into effect, as the plasma arcs around the and back through the electric arc. The electrically charged magnets would create the electric field, and should the magnets be powerful enough, the electromagnetic forces could extend to a distance great enough to channel the plasma into the specific blade shape. A powerful battery or power cell will be needed to keep the electric arc running and powering the plasma. The current apex of battery technology is the Ã¢â¬Å"aluminium graphite batteryÃ¢â¬ , which has been created by scientists at Stanford University, which can recharge a phone in 60 seconds. If the aluminium graphite battery was used to keep an electric arc inside a Lightsaber hilt running long enough to recharge the plasma. The fuel for creating the plasma is usually nitrogen gas in a plasma cutter. The Nitrogen gas would need to be held in a canister inside the Lightsaber hilt, while also being able to refill it. Nitrogen gas is appropriate as the fuel for the plasma arc, as Nitrogen is sufficiently unstable, and viable to charge from an electric arc, due to nitrogen having only 5 valence electrons. Because Nitrogen only has 5 valence electrons, there is a large electromagnetic force attracting other electrons, and therefore, more energy from the electric arc. The creation of a Lightsaber from the universe of Star Wars; is not currently possible with the level of technology and scientific understandings. However, in the near future, with a leap in the scientific understanding and practical uses of energy and plasma, such as projecting plasma into space or creating an electric field capable of being directed away from magnets, a real Lightsaber may be possible, should a scientist with the required research and funding be adventurous enough to create one. Until then, a Lightsaber will remain as just science fiction, and stay as just a fantasy that could one day be a reality. Bibliography Are lightsabers possible?| Explore | physics.org. 2015. Are lightsabers possible?| Explore | physics.org. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=59. [Accessed 18 May 2015]. Weird Things Ã » Blog Archive Ã » 3 Theories On How To Build A Real Life Lightsaber. 2015. Weird Things Ã » Blog Archive Ã » 3 Theories On How To Build A Real Life Lightsaber. [ONLINE] Available at: http://weirdthings.com/2011/08/3-theories-on-how-to-build-a-real-life-lightsaber/. [Accessed 18 May 2015]. Fast beam of neutral atoms created using lasers and plasma | Ars Technica. 2015. Fast beam of neutral atoms created using lasers and plasma | Ars Technica. [ONLINE] Available at: http://arstechnica.com/science/2013/01/acceleration-of-neutral-atoms-using-lasers-and-collisions/. [Accessed 18 May 2015]. Dense plasma focus Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2015. Dense plasma focus Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dense_plasma_focus. [Accessed 18 May 2015]. Electric arc Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2015. Electric arc Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_arc. [Accessed 18 May 2015]. Plasma (physics) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2015. Plasma (physics) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_(physics). [Accessed 18 May 2015]. http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/euratom/index_en.cfm?pg=fusionsection=plasma-physics Where Saws Failed Ã¢â¬â How Plasma Cutters Work. 2015. Where Saws Failed Ã¢â¬â How Plasma Cutters Work. [ONLINE] Available at: http://home.howstuffworks.com/plasma-cutter1.htm [Accessed 24 May 2015]. An aluminium graphite battery that could charge your smartphone in 60 seconds. ExtremeTech. 2015. An aluminium graphite battery that could charge your smartphone in 60 seconds. ExtremeTech. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.extremetech.com/electronics/202778-an-aluminum-graphite-battery-that-could-charge-your-smartphone-in-60-seconds. [Accessed 24 May 2015]. Lorentz force Ã¢â¬âWikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2015. Lorentz force Ã¢â¬â Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorentz_force. [Accessed 24 May 2015]. http://www.harvardgenerator.com/ Figure 1: https://www.google.com.au/search?q=lightsabersafe=strictbiw=1366bih=673source=lnmstbm=ischsa=Xei=KIBiVdzqDIb28QXny4CIBgsqi=2ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ#safe=stricttbm=ischq=lightsaber+insideimgrc=hC7og0Li80fcCM%253A%3BEroRd5B0rUQ__M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.emperorshammer.org%252Fdb%252FDSC%252Fimages%252Fpics%252Fpicture-lightsaber_diagram_interior.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.emperorshammer.org%252Fdb%252FDSC%252Fls.php%3B479%3B200
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Postoperative pulmonary complications INTRODUCTION: Abdominal surgery involves a high risk of the development of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). This is thought to be due to the disruption of normal respiratory muscle activity when a patient is anaesthetised, thereby impairing ventilation, expectoration and forced residual capacity (Auler et al 2002, Warner 2000). This may continue postoperatively leading to atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory dysfunction (Richardson and Sabanathan 1997). Furthermore, abdominal pain resulting from the surgical incision may limit deep breathing (Dias 2008). Exercises which promote lung inflation may help to counteract the decreased lung volumes which patients tend to present with following surgery (GuimarÃ £es 2009). Incentive spirometry (IS) is commonly used as a prophylactic treatment to prevent pulmonary complications following surgery. An incentive spirometer is a device that uses visual feedback, such as raising a ball to a line, to encourage a maximal, sustained inspiration (Overend 2001). IS is often promoted as a useful tool for rehabilitation of the respiratory muscle function following surgery. It is hypothesised that inspiration to full capacity discourages the development of atelectasis by preventing the collapse of the alveoli, and encourages correct respiratory muscle control and coordination, thereby decreasing the incidence of PPCs (Overend 2001). Incentive spirometry is a low-cost intervention, and allows the patient to experience regular rehabilitation with minimal therapist hours (Hall 1991). However, recent arguments have claimed that this technique has little more effect than conventional physiotherapy, deep breathing methods or no intervention at all (Dias 2008). Several recent randomised controlled trials have attempted to determine the effect of incentive spirometry in comparison to other interventions such as deep breathing exercises, or no specific post-operative rehabilitation. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate recent literature to determine the prophylactic effect of incentive spirometry for the avoidance of pulmonary complications in patients recovering from abdominal surgery. METHOD: A wide-ranging search of the literature was carried out, utilizing a series of key words deemed optimal for recruitment of relevant articles (Table 1). Several databases were searched by this method (Appendix 1). These included PubMed, PEDro, CINAHL, Medline via OVID and Cochrane. Reference lists sourced from several of these articles were then hand-searched. Limits were set to locate randomised controlled trials on humans, published in English from 1985 onwards. Articles published prior to 1985 were deemed to be potentially unreliable and irrelevant due to the advances in technology and medical knowledge regarding respiratory physiotherapy since this time. Articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria (Table 2) were then assessed for methodological quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. The PEDro Scale is an 11-item Scale devised to rate the methodological quality of randomised controlled trials relating to physiotherapy (Maher et al 2003). The components of the PEDro Scale are seen in Table 3. The PEDro Scale was selected to consider the value of the methodology used for each RCT because there is a high level of recent, independent evidence to indicate that the scores generated by this Scale are of sufficient reliability to support decision-making in physiotherapy (Maher et al 2003, Mosely et al 2002). The RCTs assessed by the author were all included within the PEDro database, thus had already been rated by persons with specific training in applying the PEDro Score to RCTs. The scores gained from this are therefore regarded to display a high level of accuracy. Prior to assessment, the exclusion criteria was set as a PEDro Score of less than five out of ten. A PEDro Score of five or greater is evidential of a study of moderate to high quality (Mosely et al 2002). A summary table (Appendix 2) was constructed to display the information retrieved from the four articles included in the review. This data included: PEDro Score, sample size and follow-up, outcome variables, intervention, limitations, results and clinical implications of the findings. This systematic review evaluated the benefit of the use of incentive spirometry in comparison to a control group or other intervention. This was achieved by considering the incidence of pulmonary complications (defined by a variety of outcome variables) between the groups involved in each trial. RESULTS: Search method and study selection: The initial search produced 85 non-duplicate articles of which 24 were screened. The criteria for inclusion into the review are documented in Table 2. After reading the abstract of the 24 articles selected, a further 16 records failed to meet one or more of the inclusion criteria. The remaining eight articles were then assessed for eligibility by applying the exclusion criteria (Table 2). One review article was excluded. Three RCTs were deemed to exhibit low methodological quality having produced a PEDro Score of less than five out of ten, and were excluded. The remaining four RCTs selected for the review are documented in Appendix 2. The complete search process is shown by Figure 1. Methodological quality: Table 4 shows the level of methodological quality for each article. All articles rated six or above on the PEDro Scale, and demonstrated competency in the aspects of random allocation, baseline comparison, assessor blinding, and adequate follow up. Those trials by Stock et al (1985) and Schwieger et al (1986) failed to include concealed allocation and intention to treat. Due to the nature of the intervention, none of the trials had subject or therapist blinding. Intervention and outcome variables: The four studies selected for the review include the use of IS as an intervention. Outcome variables were obtained from common methods used to diagnose pulmonary complications, including (but not limited to) blood gas analyses, body temperature, sputum analysis, chest radiography and spirometry. None of the studies documented in Appendix 2 found any significant difference between the intervention of IS and other intervention or control groups in the development of pulmonary complications. Pulmonary complications: Hall et al (1991) compared the intervention of IS to a control group of patients receiving conventional chest physiotherapy. Pulmonary complications developed in 15.8% (95% CI 14.0-17.6%) of those patients undergoing regular maximal inspirations with the use of an incentive spirometer, compared to 15.3% (95% CI 13.6 17.0%) of patients receiving conventional chest physiotherapy (Hall et al 1991). Similarly, Schwieger et al (1986) found no statistically significant benefit to promote the use of IS. 40% of those patients performing regular IS developed pulmonary complications. The control group, receiving no specialized post operative respiratory care, had a 30% incidence of the development of respiratory complications (Schwieger et al 1985). Two studies (Hall et al 1996, Stock et al 1985) compared IS against other interventions designed to have a prophylactic effect on the development of pulmonary complications following abdominal surgery. Hall et al (1996) found that IS has different levels of efficacy depending on a patients risk of developing a PPC. Post operative respiratory complications were found in 8% of low risk patients randomised to receive incentive spirometry, and in 11% of those who undertook deep breathing exercises. PPCs were detected in 19% of high risk patients receiving IS and 13% of patients who received a combination of IS and conventional chest physiotherapy (Hall et al 1996). Stock et al (1985) found no notable difference in the development of PPCs between patients randomised to IS, continuous passive airway pressure and coughing and deep breathing exercises. Post operative atelectasis All of the studies considered in this review included the presence of atelectasis detected by radiograph as a specific outcome variable to indicate a PPC. No studies showed a significant difference in the presence of post operative atelectasis between groups. Swieger et al (1986) found atelectasis to affect 30% of the IS group and 25% of the control group. Stock et al (1985) recorded a 24 hour postoperative incidence of atelectasis of 50%, 32% and 41% for patients receiving incentive spirometry, coughing and deep breathing exercises and continuous passive airway pressure, respectively (p FEV/FVC Two studies (Stock et al 1985, Swieger et al 1986) considered the change in forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity following abdominal surgery. Stock et al (1985) noted an average decline of forced vital capacity to 49%, 62% and 69% of the preoperative value at 24, 48 and 72 postoperative hours respectively (p DISCUSSION: This systematic review provides a comparative analysis of the use of incentive spirometry for a prophylactic effect on the development of pulmonary complications following abdominal surgery. Four RCTs comprised the results analysed in this review. Two of these articles rated 6/10 on the PEDro Scale (Stock et al 1985, Swieger et al 1986) and two articles were awarded a score of 8/10 (Hall et al 1991, Hall et al 1996). While each study evaluated the use of IS for prevention of PPCs following abdominal surgery, the comparisons within each study varied. Only one trial (Schwieger et al 1986) compared the IS intervention group to a control group which received no specialised post operative respiratory care. Hall et al (1991) instead considered the IS intervention group to patients receiving conventional chest physiotherapy. Two trials, (Hall et al 1996, Stock et al 1985) compared the use of incentive spirometry to other specific respiratory physiotherapy modalities. Hall et al (1996) also investigated the effect of the patients putative risk factors on their incidence of development of PPCs. It is difficult to make comparisons between the selected studies, due to the high variance of intra-study comparison. Participants Two of the studies had high numbers of participants (Hall et al 1991, Hall et al 1996), allowing for the assumption to be made that the results gained from this are accurate and representative of the sample population. Two studies had comparatively low numbers of participants (Stock et al 1985; n=64. Swieger et al 1986; n= 40). The studies with low participation rate exhibited high levels of incidence of PPCs compared to the larger studies. This indicates that the low number of participants may have caused an exaggeration of the incidence of PPCs considered in these studies. The overall male: female ratio of the studies investigated was 679:758. The gender imbalance was particularly pronounced in the trials which had low levels of participation (Stock et al 1985, Swieger et al 1986), with females outnumbering males. This makes the results more generalizable to females and decreases external validity (Juni et al 2001). This is particularly important to the analysis of respiratory function due the gender-related differences regarding function, shape and size of the lungs and the chest cavities (Becklake and Kauffman 1999). This can alter the respiratory mechanics and thus create gender biased results (Auler 2002). Publication bias is also a possible limitation of this review. Studies which obtained undesirable results are less likely to be published, thus the available literature may be biased toward a favourable outcome (Egger 1998). Intervention and outcomes The intervention itself may create bias with respect to using the comparability between the studies evaluated in this review. The administration of incentive spirometry varied slightly between trials. For example, in the trial by Schwieger et al (1986), patients were instructed to breathe deeply (with use of IS) for five minutes hourly, twelve times daily for three postoperative days. The participants in the study by Hall et al (1996) required patients to maximally inspire and hold ten times per hour. This means that broad term of incentive spirometry may actually correlate to a slightly different intervention for each study, so the incentive spirometry results evaluated in this review may not be entirely comparable. The comparable intervention of conventional chest physiotherapy is also questionable as this could also involve incentive spirometry, thus give the same results as IS whilst appearing as a separate intervention. There was inconsistency in follow up time between the four trials (see Appendix 2), which makes it difficult to pool results. Variances of outcome measures across the four studies were also a source of limitation. Outcome variables for each study are summarised in Appendix 2. The definition for pulmonary complication is potentially limiting as this would affect the diagnosis and thus results gained. The professional ability of those assessing the outcome measures (e.g radiologists) needs to be taken into account. Trial methodology Due to the nature of incentive spirometry, neither patient nor therapist blinding was carried out. This introduces the possibility of performance bias and detection bias (Juni et al 2001). Concealed allocation was missing from two studies ( Stock et al 1985, Schwieger et al 1986). A lack of concealed allocation allows for the possibility that an investigator may change who gets the next assignment, thus making the intervention group less comparable to the control group (Shulz 2000). Intention to treat analysis is also devoid in two studies (Stock et al 1985, Schwieger et al 1986), therefore clinical effectiveness may be overestimated in these trials (Hollis and Campbell, 1999). CONCLUSIONS: This review found that there is currently no evidence to support the hypothesis that incentive spirometry has a prophylactic effect on the incidence of pulmonary complications in patients recovering from abdominal surgery, compared to other physiotherapy modalities such as deep breathing exercises and conventional physiotherapy. Another recent systematic review (GuimarÃ £es et al 2009) has obtained similar findings. One study (Schwieger 1986) found that there is no significant difference in the development of PPCs between post abdominal surgery patients receiving incentive spirometry and those who received no specialised post operative respiratory care. This was the only study to compare incentive spirometry against a control group receiving no other form of physiotherapy, so it is difficult to completely rule out the possibility that IS may have some prophylactic effect which has been masked by an equal prophylactic effect of the other therapies. The clinical implications of this i s that if incentive spirometry does in fact provide some prophylactic effect on postoperative abdominal surgery patients, this benefit is no greater than that provided by other forms of physiotherapy. IS is less cost effective than deep breathing exercises, but requires less therapist hours than conventional physiotherapy. Therefore, a higher level of adequate and conclusive research needs to be done before incentive spirometry can be promoted as having a prophylactic effect on the incidence of PPCs following abdominal surgery. Articles used as a template for the review format: Andersson G, Mekhail N and Block J.(2006). Treatment of Intractable Discogenic Low Back Pain. A Systematic Review of Spinal Fusion and Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy (Idet). Pain Physician; 9: 237-248. Dodd K, Taylor N and Damiano D. (2002). A systematic review of the effectiveness of strength-training programs for people with cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 83: 1157 1164. Viswanathan P and Kidd M. (2009). Effect of Continuous Passive Motion Following Total Knee Arthroplasty on Knee Range of Motion and Function: A Systematic Review. Unpublished article. University of Otago, School of Physiotherapy. Dunedin, New Zealand. Articles used in review: Hall J, Tarala R, Harris J, Tapper J and Christiansen K. (1991). Incentive Spirometry versus routine chest physiotherapy for prevention of respiratory complications after abdominal surgery. Lancet 337: 953-956. Hall J, Tarala R, Tapper J and Hall J. (1996). Prevention of respiratory complications after abdominal surgery: a randomised clinical trial. British Medical Journal 312: 148-152. Schwieger I, Gamulin Z, Forster A, Meyer P, Gemperle M and Suter P. (1986). Absence of benefit of incentive spirometry in low-risk patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. A controlled randomized study. Chest 89: 652-656. Stock C, Downs J, Gauer P, Alster J and Imrey P. (1985). Prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications with CPAP, incentive spirometry and conservative therapy. Chest 87: 151-157. Other references: Auler J, Miyoshi E, Fernandes C, Bensenor F, Elias L and Bonassa J. (2002). The effects of abdominal opening on respiratory mechanics during general anaesthesia in normal and morbidly obese patients: A comparative study. Anesthesia and Analgesia 94: 741-8. Becklake M and Kauffmann F. (1999). Gender differences in airway behaviour over the human lifespan. Thorax 54: 1119 1138. Egger M and Smith G. (1998). Meta-analysis bias in selection and location of studies. British Medical Journal 316: 61-66. GuimarÃ £es M, El Dib R, Smith A and Matos D. (2009). Incentive spirometry for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in upper abdominal surgery.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2009, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD006058 Hollis F and Campbell S. (1999). What is meant by intention to treat analysis? Survey of published randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal 319: 670-674. Juni P, Altman D and Egger M. (2001). Systematic reviews in health care: Assessing the quality of controlled clinical trials. British Medical Journal 323: 42-46. Maher C. (2000) A systematic review of workplace interventions to prevent low back pain. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 46: 259-269. Maher M, Sherrington C, Herbert R, Mosely A and Elkins M. (2003). Reliability of the PEDro Scale for rating quality of randomised controlled trials. Physical Therapy; 83: 713-721. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J and Altman DG. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. British Medical Journal 339: 332-339. Mosely A, Herbert R, Sherrington C and Maher C. (2002). Evidence for physiotherapy practice: A survey of the physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro). Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 48: 43-49. Overend T, Anderson C, Lucy S, Bhatia C, Jonsson B and Timmermans C. (2001). The effect of incentive spirometry on postoperative pulmonary complications: A systematic review. Chest 120: 971-978. Richardson J and Sabanathan S. (1997). Prevention of respiratory complications after abdominal surgery. Thorax 52: 35-40. Schulz K. (2001). Assessing allocation concealment and blinding in randomised controlled trials: why bother? Evidence Based Nursing 4: 4-6. Warner D.(2000). Preventing postoperative pulmonary complications: The role of the anesthesiologist. Anesthesiology 192: 1467-72.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Automobile in Death of a Salesman Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In modern society, most Americans own an automobile. In the wealthier households, a family of four may own as many as three to four automobiles, one for each driver living in the house. However, the automobile has not always been a staple of living in America.Ã In the 1940s, a family with an automobile was considered well-to-do, as well as wealthy and hard-working.Ã It is during this time period that Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play, Death of a Salesman, is set. Miller gives the reader a glimpse into the life of Willy Loman, and in doing so provides an intriguing insight into the common American family of the time. Willy Loman is the everyman, constantly pursuing the Ã¢â¬Å"American Dream.Ã¢â¬ Part of the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ constitutes owning an automobile, which the Lomans do.Ã However, the importance of the automobile in this play reaches far beyond ownership. In the first scene it is addressed when WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife Linda asks him worriedly if h e has smashed the car. In the closing scene, Willy commits suicide by smashing his car into a tree. In Death of a Salesman, the automobile plays a major role, functioning both as a symbol and a tangible manifestation of the Ã¢â¬Å"American Dream.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã In the opening lines of Death of a Salesman, Linda Loman worries that something has Ã¢â¬Å"happenedÃ¢â¬ to her husband Willy.Ã After Willy assures her that Ã¢â¬Å"nothing happened,Ã¢â¬ Linda asks, Ã¢â¬Å"You didnÃ¢â¬â¢t smash the car did you?Ã¢â¬ . This initial exchange sets up the significant role the automobile will have in the events of the play. In LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, she instinctively makes the leap from a problem with Willy to a problem with the automobile. Although she is anxious about the state of the family car, Linda is not a materialistic or s... ...n depicts another outmoded character in a society on the brink of great social change. Ã Ã Works Cited and Consulted: Ã Lhannon, Jr., W. T. Deliberate Speed: The Origins of a Cultural Style in the American 1950s. Washington: Smithsonian Inst. P., 1990. Ã Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. New York: Viking P, 1966. Ã Oakley, J. Ronald. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Country: America in the Fifties. New York: Dembner Books, 1990. 245. Ã Murphy, Brenda and Susan C. W. Abbotson. Understanding Death of a Salesman: A Student Handbook to Cases, Issues and Historical Documents. The Greenwood Press Ã¢â¬Å"Literature in ContextÃ¢â¬ series, Claudia Durst Johnson, series editor. Westwood, CT, London: 1999. Ã Guth, Hans P. and Gabriel L. Rico.Ã 1993.Ã Discovering Literature.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common ManÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller.Ã Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. The Automobile in Death of a Salesman Essay -- Death Salesman essays The Automobile in Death of a Salesman Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In modern society, most Americans own an automobile. In the wealthier households, a family of four may own as many as three to four automobiles, one for each driver living in the house. However, the automobile has not always been a staple of living in America.Ã In the 1940s, a family with an automobile was considered well-to-do, as well as wealthy and hard-working.Ã It is during this time period that Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play, Death of a Salesman, is set. Miller gives the reader a glimpse into the life of Willy Loman, and in doing so provides an intriguing insight into the common American family of the time. Willy Loman is the everyman, constantly pursuing the Ã¢â¬Å"American Dream.Ã¢â¬ Part of the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ constitutes owning an automobile, which the Lomans do.Ã However, the importance of the automobile in this play reaches far beyond ownership. In the first scene it is addressed when WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife Linda asks him worriedly if h e has smashed the car. In the closing scene, Willy commits suicide by smashing his car into a tree. In Death of a Salesman, the automobile plays a major role, functioning both as a symbol and a tangible manifestation of the Ã¢â¬Å"American Dream.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã In the opening lines of Death of a Salesman, Linda Loman worries that something has Ã¢â¬Å"happenedÃ¢â¬ to her husband Willy.Ã After Willy assures her that Ã¢â¬Å"nothing happened,Ã¢â¬ Linda asks, Ã¢â¬Å"You didnÃ¢â¬â¢t smash the car did you?Ã¢â¬ . This initial exchange sets up the significant role the automobile will have in the events of the play. In LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, she instinctively makes the leap from a problem with Willy to a problem with the automobile. Although she is anxious about the state of the family car, Linda is not a materialistic or s... ...n depicts another outmoded character in a society on the brink of great social change. Ã Ã Works Cited and Consulted: Ã Lhannon, Jr., W. T. Deliberate Speed: The Origins of a Cultural Style in the American 1950s. Washington: Smithsonian Inst. P., 1990. Ã Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. New York: Viking P, 1966. Ã Oakley, J. Ronald. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Country: America in the Fifties. New York: Dembner Books, 1990. 245. Ã Murphy, Brenda and Susan C. W. Abbotson. Understanding Death of a Salesman: A Student Handbook to Cases, Issues and Historical Documents. The Greenwood Press Ã¢â¬Å"Literature in ContextÃ¢â¬ series, Claudia Durst Johnson, series editor. Westwood, CT, London: 1999. Ã Guth, Hans P. and Gabriel L. Rico.Ã 1993.Ã Discovering Literature.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common ManÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller.Ã Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Pursuit of Happiness and the Union of Aristotle and Genesis Two major schools of thought broadly influenced the development of the moral code of Western Civilization. The Judeo-Christian tradition gave us faith and God through the text of the Bible. The ancient Greeks gave us philosophical inquiry and "the Good" through the teachings of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. In his Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle proposes that "the Good" is the highest end of manÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Happiness is "the Good" because it is the only end man pursues with no other end in mind. A man obtains this highest end by living his life in a virtuous manner. In marked contrast, a careful reading of Genesis shows that, in the world of the Hebrews, the highest end of a manÃ¢â¬â¢s actions is faith in and communication with God himself. Oneness with God is the highest end because no other god exists. A man obtains this highest end by obeying GodÃ¢â¬â¢s commands and fulfilling GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plan for him. On first examination, the differences between these two construc ts seem negligible. But when we look closely at the ways in which the men of Genesis obtain their highest ends, we find that their means are less than virtuous in the eyes of Aristotle. To reach God, the ends seem to justify the means, while to reach "the Good", the virtuous path is crucial. Although this inherent difference in the two systems of morality seems to oppose them to one another, the difference between them has actually helped meld them together to form our modern view of happiness. We need both views: that wicked means will corrupt even the best ends, and that good ends can justify any means. In fact, there are stories in each text that describe a man who finds happiness through God, or "the Good," ... ...e which cannot be taken away; second, according to Genesis, because we have been given happiness by communion with a God who is ever present. Although not everyone considered to be a member of Western society holds these views on happiness, one can see these two roots in our construct of happiness. In our very American constitution, we acknowledge our inalienable right to the "pursuit of happiness." This phrase represents nothing other than the ultimate union of Aristotle and Genesis: we are guaranteed as humans, as a God-given right, the ability to strive for happiness through the Aristotelian process. NOTES 1. Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, trans. Martin Ostwald (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1999). 2. Genesis, trans. Robert Alter (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996). 3. The Holy Bible, King James Version (New York: American Bible Society).
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Managers in organizations have several functions and duties which they carry out to ensure that the organization is running well. Some of the duties and functions are planning, which is an ongoing process of developing the organizations mission and objectives as well as determining how the set mission and objectives can be accomplished. Directing involves influencing behavior of people by way of motivation, group dynamics, communication, discipline and leadership and controlling function where performance standards are established, (Erven, 2008). Another function is organizing where the internal organizational structure of the organization are established. It mostly focuses on coordination or resources, division and control of tasks as well as good information flow within the organization. Managers also ensure that all the departments and resources in them such as physical assets, finances, the human resource, technology and knowledge are doing the right duties and well organized. Organizing also involves the activities which are carried out in the process of configuring the organization resources in order to implement plans which will be highly effective and also efficient. It is one of the major functions of management where it deals with organizing the managers themselves, designing tasks, roles or jobs to people, organizing the organizations staff, organizing the groups and the general resources in the organization so that they achieve the goals and objectives set. Managers need to organize their human resources in the best way since it is the ground in which the companies depend on,. In organizing the human resource of the organization, the managers reviews the set plans, lists all the tasks that needs to be accomplished, divide the tasks into groups where each person is put into to a group where the person will be able to perform that certain task, this is referred to as division of labor. In division of labor, the related jobs are grouped together in and efficient and logical manner, the jobs are then assigned to individuals and the managers delegates authority so as to establish relationships between the groups of jobs and the jobs themselves. In organizations, the employees wants their work to go on in a manners which excites them and makes them have the commitment needed to accomplish the set goals. In organization such as Coca cola, the managers have ensured that the budgets are invested in people because human resource is the most important assets in an organization. The management has put in mind that when they are hiring the human resource in the organization, they are not just hiring their bodies or their time, rather, they are hiring their training, their experience in the work that they are delegated to do, their energy which they will put in the delegated duties, their creativity as well as their commitment which ensures that the job will be well done and will accomplish the expected or set results, (Warner, 1993). Managers in Coca cola have emphasized and provided the necessary tools for the employees so that they will be able to carry out their jobs well, they provide career counseling so that employees are able to know exactly what is expected of them. Employees are also be provided with professional development opportunities and training in educational design so that they have the required formal knowledge and education for their position. This entails knowledge such as computer knowledge or knowledge of using other technologies for production purposes. Good communication methods between the employees and the management have been provided so that the employees can be able to communicate any problems which they may be experiencing and requires the management intervention. Good communication is necessary between the employees at the same level of management so that can share knowledge pertaining the work that they are doing, help each other and also come up with new ideas of how to carry out their duties in a better manner. The staff in an organization needs to be provided with a chance to participate in the management and decision making processes which incorporates the common goals which needs to be achieved because the employees can contribute and come up with better ideas for managers. Team work and cooperation instead of segregation is also important as employees feel that they are part of the organization. The organization environment should also be risk free with a competition aspect so that the employees can do their best. When managing and organizing employees therefore, managers need to change their thinking style from the span of control to span of support for the employees. When they provide such an environment, the organization will be able to bring together people who have diverse backgrounds, experiences and ideas which will foster the emergence of creative ideas and approaches needed to run the organization. All these have been incorporated in organizing human resource of Coca cola and has yield good benefits. Technology influences an organizations functioning and performance and cannot be separated from expertise, jobs, structures or processes of the organization. Coca cola company has has combined the technology available with the features of the organization and in turn it has created new affordances which have impacted positively on the boundaries of the organization. Managers should know that organizing does not need to take place around a hierarchy and the collection, storage, and distribution of the information as it was the case in the past management which used command and control to run the organizations. The adaption of organizational practices and innovations in technology has made it possible for organizations such as Coca cola to organize around what can be done with information technology. When dealing with technology in an organization, managers should ensure that the technology is up to date so that it can be able to handle the processes being performed by the organization. The technologies should be arranged in such a manner that they are of benefit to the entire organization and that they are used in the right places. Coca cola has organized its technology in such as way that its processes are running well and therefore the company is efficient and effective in its production. It is able to produce the required amount of products on time and there are delay involved associated with with their processes. They ensure that their processes are up to date by using the most up to date technology which is associated with their kind of productions. The company has also harnessed and fueled many of its technological innovations in different arenas so as to stay ahead of other soft drink manufacturers and distribution. Due to its innovative use of technology and good organization, Coca cola has raced to the forefront of the beverage world. Technology has helped it to grow from its humble roots to become part of the larger system and it has also discovered new technologies and techniques of production. Organizing and use of innovative advertising techniques which is harnessed by good management of technology, creation of new technologies and redefinition of how the technologies are used has made Coca cola to achieve greatness which makes the future to be brighter for the company. In conclusion, optimization of organization resources by an organization help it to achieve its goals faster and therefore be more efficient and effective in the industry. Good organization of resources such as human resource and technology helps the organization to be in a better position compared to others and therefore have a competitive edge. Coca cola has been able to optimize these resources in an effective and efficient way which make it a leader in its industry. Its organization of the human resource has made the employees to be experts in their field and therefore carry their duties more efficiently. Management of their technology has also made their processes and procedures effective and efficient an therefore have become leaders in the global market.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Dr. Maria Montessori is the laminitis of the Montessori method of instruction. She started her foremost schoolroom Ã¢â¬Å"Casa dei BambiniÃ¢â¬ or ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s House in 1907. Montessori method of instruction stresses the importance of esteeming kids Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Help me to assist myselfÃ¢â¬ . Montessori instruction celebrates its hundredth twelvemonth in 2007. The ends of a Montessori instruction were to develop centripetal preparation. linguistic communication acquisition. arithmetic. physical instruction. practical life accomplishments and abstract thought through the instruction of the whole kid and the integrating of the household into the early instruction system. Montessori began her educational experiences by working with particular demands kids. At the clip of Montessori. particular needs kids were thought of as a Ã¢â¬Å"lost causeÃ¢â¬ . They could non larn how to go members of society because intelligence was fixed. She strongly opposed to the perceptual experiences on cognitive abilities of these kids at the clip. and believed that they could larn how to go members of society through particular learning techniques that utilized centripetal instruction and hands-on experience. Her purpose was to learn kids faculty members through practical life experiences and to Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦to develop the whole personality of the kid through motor. sensory. and rational activityÃ¢â¬ ( Hainstock. 1997. 35 ) . Montessori Ã¢â¬â The Montessori schoolroom is a meticulously prepared environment designed specifically to run into the demands of the kid both physically and emotionally. One facet of the prepared environment includes the Practical Life activities. Many Practical Life activities are tasks the kid sees routinely performed in the place. They each serve a meaningful intent as the kid Masterss each piece of work such as binding places. pouring H2O. brushing. or run uping and cookery. Through Practical Life activities. a kid will besides develop and polish societal accomplishments. These accomplishments developed through Practical Life construct self-esteem. finding and independency. The pupil learns to take attention of him and the surrounding environment. Maria Montessori explains in. The Discovery of the Child. Ã¢â¬Å"Through practical life exercisings of this kind the kids develop a true Ã¢â¬Ësocial feeling. Ã¢â¬â¢ for they are working in the environment of the community in which they liveÃ¢â¬ ( 5. pg. 97 ) . Additionally. all right motor accomplishments are improved through usage of the Practical Life stuffs. Through repeated undertakings which enable a kid to polish concentration. coordination. independency. and order. a childÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self-worth grows. The Practical Life accomplishments are an indispensable constituent in the Montessori schoolroom. Not merely do they supply a nexus between place and school for the new Montessori pupil. but they provide a foundation for life-long love of While looking rather simple and insistent. Practical Life activities are extremely purposeful. A kid engaged in such activities demonstrates high degrees of concentration. sense of order. and polish of all right motor accomplishments. Besides. they show a sense of independency through caring for oneself and the environment. Furthermore. they show respect for schoolmates and instructors and develop a sense of pride. Not merely are these accomplishments and qualities necessary to come on in the Montessori schoolroom. but they are besides needed as an single develops into maturity. Practical Life activities can be divided into six chief classs. First. are Preliminary Exercises which assist in making modus operandi and order in the environment and are requirements for other activities. How to a axial rotation a mat. transport a chair. or how to open and shut a door are illustrations of Preliminary Exercises. Practical life exercisings besides include Fundamental Skills such as pouring. spooning. or tonging. As with all lessons in the Montessori schoolroom. these activities follow a consecutive order and ideally. each lesson builds upon the last. Another class is Care of Self. Activities such as rinsing custodies. buttoning. or binding shoe laces assist the kid to go physically independent. Care of Environment is another class affecting activities such as brushing. irrigating. cleansing. etc. Control of Movement is an country of Practical Life which encompasses lessons such as walking the Line and the Silence Game. Additionally. societal Grace and Courtesy lessons are introduced to the kid. These may include lessons on how to state please and thank you. disrupting person. or presenting friends and familiarities. Montessori stressed the relationship of these exercisings to the general felicity and good being of the kid. Ã¢â¬Å"A kid who becomes a maestro of his Acts of the Apostless through long and repeated exercisings [ of practical life ] . and who has been encouraged by the pleasant and interesting activities in which he has been engaged. is a kid filled with wellness and joy and remarkable for his composure and disciplineÃ¢â¬ ( The Discovery the Child. 5. pg. 93 ) . Changing types of presentations can be used by the instructor to present Practical Life activities. First is a corporate debut given the kids at one time. This could include proper table manners. how to disrupt person. how to talk with an inside voice. or how to turn the page of a book. Another method is a group presentation given to a little assemblage of kids. The last method of debut is Individual. given merely to one kid at a clip. Montessori believed the prepared environment is straight correlated to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. The schoolroom is a specifically designed country arranged entirely for the kids. There should be a assortment of motion and activity and all work operates together through the subjects. Montessori besides believed in the importance of aesthetically delighting schoolrooms. Children respond well to beauty. order. and quality in their environment. Through the Practical Life activities in the Montessori schoolroom. a kid non merely learns concentration. coordination. independency and order. but besides how to interact with others and derive an apprehension and grasp of the environment. The kid begins to construct himself from within while larning to handle him and others with regard and self-respect. These apprehensions finally prepare the kid for entry into society and a life-time of self-respect and self-worthiness. Practical Life activities in the Montessori schoolroom finally provide the foundation for success in all countries of life. Movement Ã¢â¬â Montessori said- Ã¢â¬Å"one of the greatest errors of our twenty-four hours is to believe of motion by itself. as something apart from the higher functionsÃ¢â¬ ( The absorbent head. pg 151 ) Ã¢â¬â it is non every bit clear as to how scientists and instructors have failed to observe the supreme importance of activity in the edifice up of the adult male to adult male be! It was during the clip of Dr Maria Montessori who felt it was clip to stress more on Ã¢â¬Å"movementÃ¢â¬ in educational theory Ã¢â¬â Mental development must be connected with motion. Like manÃ¢â¬â¢s nervous system is divided into three parts-BrainSense organs- collect feeling and go through them to the encephalonMuscles Ã¢â¬â the nervousnesss transmits nervous energy to the musculuss and this energy controls the motions of the musculuss. Motion is the concluding consequence to which the working of all these delicate mechanisms leads up and it is because of motion that personality can show itself ( The absorbent head. pg 148 ) ! The great philosophers must utilize address or composing to convey his thoughts and this involves muscular motion. What would be the value of his ideas if he gave them no look? This he can merely make by doing usage of his musculuss. Psychologists regard the musculuss as a portion of the cardinal nervous system ( works as a whole to set adult male in relation with his milieus ) and this whole setup of Brain. Senses and Muscles is called Ã¢â¬â the system of relationship- it puts adult male in touch with his universe ( populating or non life and with other people ) and without its aid a adult male could hold no contact with his milieus or his chaps. The vegetive systems merely help their proprietor to turn and be. It is the system of relationship which puts him into contact with the universe! There is nil in the universe which plays no portion in the cosmopolitan economic system. and if we are endowed with religious wealths. with aesthetic feelings and a refined scruples. it is non for ourselves. but so that these gifts shall be used for the benefit of all. and take their topographic point in the cosmopolitan economic system of religious life. Nature has given us many abilities and these must be developed and used. We know that for the enjoyment of good wellness. bosom. lungs and stomache must all work together. We must use the same regulation to the system of relationship. the cardinal nervous systemÃ¢â¬ ¦ . . if we have a encephalon. sense variety meats and musculuss. all these must collaborate. The system must exercise itself in all its parts. none of them being neglected for illustration we want to stand out in encephalon p ower but to win in this we must include the other sides excessively. To hone any given activity Ã¢â¬Å"movementÃ¢â¬ will be needed as the last phase of the rhythm. In other words a higher spiritualty can be reached merely through action and this is the point of position from which motion has to be judged. one of the greatest errors of our twenty-four hours is to believe of motion by itself. as something apart from the higher maps. we think of our musculuss as variety meats to be used merely for wellness intents. We Ã¢â¬Å"take exerciseÃ¢â¬ or make Ã¢â¬Å"gymnasticsÃ¢â¬ to maintain ourselves fit. to do us take a breath or to eat or kip better. It is an mistake which has been taken over by the schools. It is merely as though a great prince were being made the retainer of the shepherd. The prince Ã¢â¬â the muscular system Ã¢â¬âis merely being used to assist the vegetive life. Such premises will take to enquiryÃ¢â¬ ¦there comes about a separation between the life of motion and the life of idea. Since the kid has a organic structure and mind both. games must be included in the course of study so as to avoid pretermiting any portion of n atureÃ¢â¬â¢s proviso. To maintain believing about the head on one manus and the organic structure on other manus is to interrupt the continuity that should reign between them. This keeps action off from thought. The true intent of motion is to function the terminals of being Ã¢â¬â that is the development of the head ( The absorbent head. pg 151 ) . All motion has most intricate and delicate machinery. but in adult male none of it is established at birth. It has to be formed and perfected by the childÃ¢â¬â¢s activity in the universe. Movement and activity are natural maps of childhood and acquisition comes through them. Activity becomes progressively of import to development. It is the motion that starts the intellect workingÃ¢â¬ ¦ Till now all pedagogues have thought of motion and the muscular system as AIDSs to respiration. or to circulation. or as a agency of constructing up physical beef up our new construct the position is taken that motion has great importance in mental development itself. provided that the action which occurs is connected with the mental activity traveling on. Both mental and religious growing are fostered by this. without which neither upper limit advancement nor maximal wellness ( speech production of the head ) can be. A kid is a inventor. He is an formless splendid being in hunt of his ain signifier. For illustration in the development of address. we see a turning power of understanding travel side by side with an drawn-out usage of those musculuss by which he forms sounds and words. Observations made on kids Ã¢â¬â the universe overconfirms that the kid uses his motions to widen his apprehension. Movement helps in development of head and this finds renewed look in farther motion and activity ( The absorbent head. pg 154 ) . The kid additions experience through exercisings and motion. He coordinates his ain motion and records the emotions he experiences in coming into contact with the external universe. The importance of physical activity or motion in a psychic development should be emphasized. The kid has an internal power to convey about cordinations. which he creates himself. and one time these have begun to be he goes on honing them by pattern. He himself is clearly one of the chief originative factors in their production. The motions the kid acquires are non chosen randomly but are fixed. In the sense that each returns out of a peculiar period of development. When the kid begins to travel. his head being able to absorb. has already taken in his milieus. He Is directed by a cryptic power. great and fantastic that he incarnates small by small. In this manner. he becomes a adult male. He does it with his custodies. by experience. foremost in drama so through work. The custodies are the instruments of manÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence. He constructs his mind measure by measure boulder clay it becomes possessed of memory. the power to understand and the ability to believe. Ã¢â¬Å"The childÃ¢â¬â¢s head can get civilization at a much earlier age than is by and large supposed. but his manner of taking in cognition is by certain sorts of activity which involves movementÃ¢â¬ ¦ . Ã¢â¬ ( Montessori notes ) It is really interesting to analyze the mechanical development of motion. non merely because of its elaborateness but because each of the stages it passes through is clearly seeable. ManÃ¢â¬â¢s pes can be studied from three points of position: the psysiological. the biological and the anatomical and all of them are most interesting. The manus is in direct connexion with the manÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche. but besides with different ways of life that work forces have adopted on the Earth in different topographic points and at different times. The accomplishments of manÃ¢â¬â¢s manus are bound up with the development of his head. and in the visible radiation of history we see it connected with the development of civilisation. The custodies of adult male express his idea and from the clip of his first visual aspect upon the Earth hints of his handicraft besides appear in the records of history. Hence. the development of manual accomplishment keeps gait with mental development. We are told that St. Francis of Assisi Ã¢â¬â possibly the simplest and purest of human psyches used to state Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Look at these great hills! They are the walls of our temple and the aspiration of our Black Marias! Ã¢â¬ ( The absorbent head. pg 163 ) The truth is that when a free spirit exists. it has to happen itself in some signifier of work and for this custodies are needed. ( The absorbent head. pg 163 ) The manus are connected with mental life. allows the head to uncover itself and enables the whole being to come in into particular relationship with its environment. His custodies under the counsel of his intellect transform this environment and therefore enable him to carry through his mission in the universe. The instruction of the motions is really complex. as it must match to all coordinated motions which the kid has to set up in his physiological being. The kid if left without counsel is disorderly in his motions and these disorderly motions are the particular features of the small kid. The kid is seeking the exercisings in these motions which will form and organize the motions that are utile to a adult male. The kid follows direction/instructions and if his motions are made a small definite so the kid grows quiet and contended and becomes an active worker. a being composure and full of joy. This instruction of motions is one of the chief factors in bring forthing that outward v isual aspect of Ã¢â¬Å"disciplineÃ¢â¬ to be found in the Ã¢â¬Å"childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s houseÃ¢â¬ . ( Montessori notes ) Importance of motion: Ã¢â¬âMovement leads to:Muscle development. both all right and gross Ã¢â¬â demand freedom for motion to take topographic point Stimulates the headStimulates the sensesDevelops concentrationDevelops independencyDevelops assurance ( through agility/balance and co-ordination ) Develops subject and willDevelops linguistic communicationLeads to standardizationConsequences in a healthy organic structure and headEmotional and rational development through motion: Ã¢â¬â Emotions are the impacting mental phases. organized by external thoughts of state of affairss and ever move while accompanied by bodily and mental exhilaration. However. when we talk about emotional development in kids. we find that kids show a broad scope of emotional reactions. Sometimes they are excited and ebullient and at other times they are down and sullen and some other clip they are merely angry. throwing fits. We find assorted sunglassess of emotions in them even at an early age. The word emotion originates from the Latin word Ã¢â¬Å" EmovereÃ¢â¬ which means to be excited. So. an emotion implies that province of head which excites a individual when adult male is influenced by emotion he gets aroused and his natural province of equilibrium is lost. Pattern of emotional development Ã¢â¬â if we have to understand the emotions of a kid of school age. it is indispensable to take into consideration his emotional development during the early old ages. Sometimes. freshly born babies behave as though they are violently aroused. If such vigorous behaviour means the strength of his feelings. so we must reason that emotional experiences can be as intense during this early period as at any ulterior phase of growing. Again we see that a new born kid is comparatively unresponsive to many stimulations which are likely to elicit him in later phases. Children are capable of rich and varied emotional experiences in the class of their development till they are grownups. Children from birth to 2 old ages go through a assortment of emotions and goes through many emotional experiences that may act upon his attitude towards life. Studies show that at birth there are general exhilarations largely refering his hungriness and amenitiess. after 2-3 months the kid shows definite marks of hurt along with delectation. By 6 months with his exposure of different sorts of stimulations the kid starts demoing other sunglassess of emotions like hurt or uncomfortablenesss develops into fright. disgust and choler. With the satisfaction of his demands he feels delighted and by the clip kid completes one twelvemonth this delectation differentiates itself from fondness. the kid recognizes emotions in others and responds to it clearly. But his emotions are non so strong as respect to joy and felicity when he turns one as they are at the age of 2. Therefore we conclude that by the terminal of 2nd twelvemonth the kid has already developed assorted emotions and feelings. Factors impacting emotional development Ã¢â¬â There are many factors that affect the emotional development among kids. the major 1s are Ã¢â¬â Fatigue Ã¢â¬â tired and exhausted kidIll wellnessOrder of birthIntelligenceEnvironmentParental attitudes The childÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions are still pure of contrasts. He loves because he takes in. because nature orders him to make so. And what he takes and absorbs to do it a portion of his ain life. so as to make his ain being ( The secret of childhood. pg 80 ) . The kid follows the adults and the words of a adult are supernatural stimulations. The kid is enchanted and fascinated by his actions and words. What the grown up Tells him remains engraved in his head like words incised by a chisel on a rock. The grownup should number and mensurate all his words before the kid. for the kid is hungry to take from him. he is an collector of love. The developing kid non merely acquires the modules of adult male: strength. intelligence. linguistic communication. but at the same clip. he adapts the being he is building to the conditions of the universe about him. The kid has a different relation to his environment from ours. The things he sees are non merely remembered ; they form portion of his psyche. He incarnates in himself all in the universe about him that his eyes see and his ears hear. In us the same things produce no alteration but a kid is transformed by them. This critical sort of memory which absorbs is called Ã¢â¬Å" MnemeÃ¢â¬ . In this procedure of soaking up. acquisition. geting. accommodating the kid is building non merely physically but emotionally or psychic as good. The minute the kid understands his environment he learns to work and accommodate to it and so further wants to get the hang in it which leads to alterations consequently. In this complete procedure the undermentioned emotions are built ; Self esteemAssuranceFeeling of capablenessSense of accomplishmentTherefore. kids enjoy procedure non purpose!The distinguishable difference between adult male and carnal Ã¢â¬â Montessori tends to follow a different point of view from many modern psychologists. Most of the psychologists place great accent upon the Ã¢â¬Å"inherited inclinations to behaviorÃ¢â¬ which adult male has in common with animate beings. They maintain that everything we do is based on the natural impulses of human act. Therefore ; the love of cognition is but the sublimed inherent aptitude of wonder. For Montessori. she believes that adult male differs from carnal creative activity non merely in grade but besides in sort. She states that the most important thing about the kid development is non natural inclinations that are in common with animate beings. but the capacity to ground which distinguishes us from them. Here. she is non seeking to deny or minimize the significances of their findings. but she is stating that these simple psychic forces are merely a portion of the inquiry and a lesser portion. her strong belief is Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Animals have simply to rouse their inherent aptitudes towards their specified behaviour and their psychic life is limited to this. But in adult male there is other fact Ã¢â¬âthe creative activity of human intelligence ( Montessori. notes ) . Unlike adult male. one can foretell the behaviour of animate beings. whereas for adult male. what he will make in the hereafter. no 1 can state. Ã¢â¬Å"For adult male there is no limitÃ¢â¬ ( Montessori notes ) . Man is a rational animate being to be most Ã¢â¬Å"like to GodÃ¢â¬ whose image we are made. Man entirely possesses Ã¢â¬Å"that capable and god-like ground which enables us to make what no animate being has of all time achieved Ã¢â¬âi. e. to lift to a consciousness of our being i. e. ego consciousness. to the cognition that Ã¢â¬Å"I am IÃ¢â¬ . It is with this gift of ground or mind as foundation that we are able to construct our single characters. How shortly does a kid Begin to ground? Harmonizing to Montessori. it begins every bit early as a babe where the kid starts from nil. Its ground revolves round his internal working like a small bud. developing and presuming concrete signifier from the images it absorbs from the environment. Harmonizing to Montessori at her talk in 1944. it was stated that the first twelvemonth of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life is the period where greatest psychic activity can develop by the human being. This is apparent because we know that the encephalon is one thing that is active during the first twelvemonth. That the ground why the caput of a one twelvemonth old has doubled in size since its Born. At the 3rd twelvemonth. its encephalon is already half that of the adult- at four old ages eight Ã¢â¬âtenths of its ultimate size. Montessori farther elaborated that it is during the first period that the human being grows chiefly in intelligence: the remainder of its growing during this period. being low-level to this developing psychic life. The three features we can detect about a kid during this period are Ã¢â¬â The kid creates his ain head Ã¢â¬âSince intelligence is what distinguishes adult male from all other animate beings. the first feature is the creative activity of intelligence. As said before he foremost constructs himself by absorbing everything from the environment by his unconscious head. With these countless feelings. the kid continues to construct his witting intelligence. Montessori said ; to construct up this witting intelligence. the work of the manus plays an of im port and indispensable portion. The intelligence builds its ain instrument Ã¢â¬âSecond fact is while building his ain intelligence he besides begins to build his ain bodily instruments of look. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s power of motion will develop in subordination to this superior purpose i. e. of psychic development. Its activity will non be confined within the narrow bounds of natural behaviour. but will work as an instrument of a free moral agent. His ageless fate is placed within his ain custodies. Fantastic adaptative powers of the kid Ã¢â¬âThe 3rd feature of this period. are the fantastic adaptative power possessed by the kid. Montessori illustrated this point by comparing adult male to animate beings. Example Ã¢â¬â if a cat is born in France. England or India. it would mew merely the same manner wherever it grows up. However for a kid he will talk Gallic in France. English in England and Hindi or any other idiom in India. This is because of its Ã¢â¬Å"inner constructionÃ¢â¬ . Motion and mental assimilation leads to integrating of personality Ã¢â¬â The kid constructs himself through motion. The value of motion goes deeper that merely assisting in acquisition of cognition. It involves the development of childÃ¢â¬â¢s personality -in 1st twelvemonth babe establishes his physical his physical development through motion. He learns to utilize his limbs and whole organic structure to transport out motions such as creeping. standing and walking and sometimes running. In the following few old ages he refines his gross motor accomplishments through motion. He continues to develop his all right motor accomplishments through activities that involve motions. As the kid interacts with his environment. he absorbs the environment into his psychic life. Through repeated usage of stuffs in the environment he learns to compare. discriminate. differentiate and justice the qualities of the stuffs. As the kid additions experience through exercisings and motions. he co-ordinates his ain motion and records the emotions he experienced in coming into contact with the external universe. He learns self aid accomplishments. taking and sharing. This is the societal and emotional development of the kid. It is besides non sufficient to let kids to larn without giving him the chance to work or research with the stuffs. When kids work with the stuffs. it involves originative motion. When learning kids. it is non sufficient for them to hear the things which we wish him to larn. Ã¢â¬Å"We must give no more to oculus & A ; ear than we give to the handÃ¢â¬ ( Montessori notes ) For illustration. in learning kids. the thought of dimension. it is no good to demo them a diagram of objects of assorted sizes. alternatively we need to supply kids with concrete stuffs such as the gnarled cylinder. tap tower. brown stepss. long rods and knobbles cylinders. They must be given the chance to research and experiment with the stuffs. This is so with all Montessori stuffs whether it is the four operations in arithmetic. parts of address or acquisition of lands and H2O. It ever involves motion. The kid as an single nowadayss two facets Ã¢â¬âthe centre and the fringe. The centre is seen as the innermost bastion of the personality from which action returns. At this centre the kid increases his mental powers by seeking out esthesis and motion which takes topographic point at the 2nd portion of his personality i. vitamin E at the fringe. The fringe is that portion of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s personality which comes in contact with the external universe. It involves the senses. motions and the outward manifestations of his pick. Through uninterrupted interaction of the centre and the fringe. the head of the kid develops and expands. The directress should be concerned with the fringe as it is that portion of the kid that is accessible to her. The other methods of learning purposes at acquiring to the centre straight. The teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s concern is to feed the fringe. The instructor prepares the environment that meets the childÃ¢â¬â¢s inner demands and in his geographic expedition of the stuffs. he abstracts thoughts from them. As both centre and fringe interacts. the kid builds his head. The objects in the environment can non be chosen at random. Each stuff possesses an thought or concept to be realized. non to be announced by the instructor. At the kid explore with the stuffs. this concept/idea become presented. In pattern. we frequently find that even if the directress has prepared the environment and presented the stuffs to the kids. at that place do non look to be a chink of the centre and the fringe. The kid does non look to be interested and his act seems to be in a disorderly mode. Harmonizing to Montessori. the reply to this losing nexus is the Ã¢â¬Å"Point of ContactÃ¢â¬ . To explicate this. Montessori used the illustration of learning the grasp of music. If the instructor tries to play music forenoon boulder clay dark and kids are allowed to travel approximately to travel about anyhow and anyplace in a disorderly mode. there is a deficiency of contact. To decide this job. the musculuss. which move. should travel in response to the musical beat therefore set uping a psychic span between the psyche of the kid and the external world of music. The minute the kid understands that there exists the connexion ( i. vitamin E between the music and his motion ) . so the point of contact is established. So if the music changes its beat. so the kid becomes cognizant of it and changes his motion consequently. and he is on the route to hone himself. This world may be either material or religious ; but motion must ever attach to the kid at any rate. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s expression at an illustration to understand how the point of contact aid development. In their presenting of the sensory stuffs. kids were given new sounds. new forms etc. The chief intent of it is non merely convey new sounds. new forms but to convey order into this new feeling. The trouble or the mistake that the kid is to detect and understand must be isolated in a individual piece of stuff. For illustration the long rods will show to the kid merely a fluctuation in length and non in coloring material and design. Such isolation will assist child concentrate on the job more readily. It is through this method. that it leads the kid to be interested in dimension. and develop him to detect them in the universe about. Montessori calls her material Ã¢â¬Å"keys to the UniverseÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âit is of import to constantly retrieve that it is through this point of contact limited and precisely but existent work. helps the kid to cite the head to inquire at big in phantasy to something existent which opens up a new tract. With younger kids. nevertheless. it was observed that the exercisings in practical life will play an of import portion. but ever the point of contact will be established through motion. An illustration was to acquire up from a chair and carry it from one topographic point to another without any sound. The kids would be presented this construct of self flawlessness and would seek to make the same as it corresponds to his psyche. Again. we see the truth of MontessoriÃ¢â¬â¢s axiom that Ã¢â¬Å"education begins through movementÃ¢â¬ .