Friday, December 27, 2019

Definition and Types of Illocutionary Force

In speech-act theory, illocutionary force  refers to a speakers intention in delivering an utterance  or to the kind of illocutionary act the speaker is performing. Also known as an illocutionary function  or illocutionary point. In Syntax: Structure, Meaning, and Function (1997), Van Vallin and LaPolla state that illocutionary force refers to whether an utterance is an assertion, a question, a command or an expression of a wish. These are different types of illocutionary force, which means that we can talk about interrogative illocutionary force, imperative illocutionary force, optative illocutionary force, and declarative illocutionary force. The terms illocutionary act and illocutionary force were introduced by British linguistic philosopher John L. Austin in How to Do Things With Words (1962). Examples and Observations Illocutionary Act and Illocutionary Force [A]n illocutionary act refers to the type of function a speaker intends to accomplish in the course of producing an utterance. It is an act accomplished in speaking and defined within a system of social conventions. Thus, if John says to Mary Pass me the glasses, please, he performs the illocutionary act of requesting or ordering Mary to hand the glasses over to him. The functions or actions just mentioned are also referred to as the illocutionary force or illocutionary point of the speech act. The illocutionary force of a speech act is the effect a speech act is intended to have by a speaker. Indeed, the term speech act in its narrow sense is often taken to refer specifically to illocutionary act.(Yan Huang, The Oxford Dictionary of Pragmatics. Oxford University Press, 2012) Illocutionary Force Indicating Devices There are different devices used to indicate how an illocutionary force must be interpreted. For example, Open the door and Could you open the door have the same propositional content (open the door), but they represent different illocutionary acts—an order and a request respectively. These devices that aid the hearer in identifying the illocutionary force of the utterance are referred to as the illocutionary force indicating devices or IFIDs [also called illocutionary force markers]. Performative verbs, mood, word order, intonation, stress are examples of IFIDs.(Elizabeth Flores Salgado,  The Pragmatics of Requests and Apologies. John Benjamins, 2011) I may indicate the kind of illocutionary act I am performing by beginning the sentence with I apologize, I warn, I state, etc. Often, in actual speech situations, the context will make it clear what the illocutionary force of the utterance is, without its being necessary to invoke the appropriate explicit illocutionary force indicator.(John R. Searle,  Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge University Press, 1969) "I Was Just Saying That" Kenneth Parcell: Im sorry, Mr. Jordan. Im just overworked. With my page duties and being Mr. Donaghys assistant, theres not enough hours in the day.Tracy Jordan: Im sorry about that. But just let me know if theres any way I can help.Kenneth: Actually, there is one thing...Tracy: No! I was just saying that! Why cant you read human facial cues (Jack McBrayer and Tracy Morgan, Cutbacks. 30 Rock, April 9, 2009) Pragmatic Competence Achieving pragmatic competence involves the ability to understand the illocutionary force of an utterance, that is, what a speaker intends by making it. This is particularly important in cross-cultural encounters since the same form (e.g. When are you leaving?) can vary in its illocutionary force depending on the context in which it is made (e.g. May I have a ride with you? or Dont you think it is time for you to go?).(Sandra Lee McKay, Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford University Press, 2002) What I Really Mean When I say how are you to a co-worker, I really mean hello. Although I know what I mean by how are you, it is possible that the receiver does not know that I mean hello and actually proceeds to give me a fifteen-minute discourse on his various maladies.(George Ritzer, Sociology: A Multiple Paradigm Science. Allyn Bacon, 1980)

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Development Banks Impact on Economic Development - 3189 Words

NATIONAL AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS AND THEIR IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT APRIL 3, 2011 Financial Sector An economy’s financial markets are critical to its overall growth and development. Banking systems and stock markets enhance growth and are considered the main factor in poverty reduction. Strong financial systems provide reliable and accessible information that lowers transaction costs, which in turn bolsters resource allocation and economic growth. Development Banks are one such member of the financial institutions that can affect growth and development of a country and the regions within its sphere of influence if it provides the accessibility, stability, and efficiency in financial resource allocation to deficit†¦show more content†¦2. It is a specialized financial institution which provides medium term and long-term lending facilities. 3. It is a multipurpose financial institution. Besides providing financial help it undertakes promotional activities also. It helps an enterprise from its planning to operational level. 4. The objective of these banks is to serve p ublic interest rather than earning profits. 5. Development banks react to the socio-economic needs of development 6. The role of a development Bank is of a Gap Filler. When assistance from other sources is not sufficient then this channel helps. It does not compete with normal channel of finance. 7. Development banks primarily aim to accelerate the rate of growth. It helps industrialization specific and economic development in general Principal Source of Funds for Development Banks (Resources Available) Most Development Banks including the Caribbean Development Banks source of funds are of two kinds: ordinary operations and special operations. Ordinary operations are financed from share capital, the proceeds of loans raised in capital markets or borrowed or otherwise acquired by e.g. CDB for inclusion in its Ordinary Capital Resources (OCR) and its ordinary reserves. Regionally, CDB special operations are financed from the Special Development Fund (SDF) (see Appendix C) andShow MoreRelatedThe Negative Impacts Of International Financial Institutions In Africa, Africa991 Words   |  4 Pagesresources. The governments of some regions in the country received aids from International financial institutions (IFI) – and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) – to increase productivity and industrial capacities to boost their economic growth faster. However, there has been a huge negative impact on the conditions of local economy and agricultural productions, natural resources, employment and the services of education and health care. This affects similarly to other developingRead MoreRelationship Between Financial Development And Economic Growth922 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction The relationship between financial development and economic growth has elicited plenty of debate over the last few years. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

1994 DBQ Outline Sample Essay Example For Students

1994 DBQ Outline Sample Essay Q: To what extent was late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century United States expansionism a continuance of past United States expansionism and to what extent was it a going? Use the paperss and your cognition of United States history to 1914 to build your reply Documents: A- 1885. CartoonMain Idea: British. German. and Russian imperialists are all taking portion in enlargement into lands around the universe. in continents such as Africa and Asia. B- 1885. WritingMain Idea: White influence will shortly do an inevitable growing into all parts of the Earth. taking to a â€Å"survival of the fittest† between viing races. C- 1897. WritingMain Idea: America must react to expansionism in the Pacific by other states by beef uping its great sea power. D- 1899. ArgumentMain Idea: Imperialism and enlargement go against traditional American values. bewraying the Declaration of Independence and the Fundamental law E- 1900. AddressMain Idea: America has the God-given responsibility to spread out and distribute its influence around the universe. and the state should non give up district obtained in the Pacific and Asia. F- 1904. AddressMain Idea: American expansionism isn’t a consequence of the hungriness for land and resources. but a desire to convey assistance to less fortunate peoples and convey stableness and prosperity to their societies. G- 1900. CartoonMain Idea: American diplomatic negotiations helped make the â€Å"open door† in China. leting other states to partake in the wealth of the state. H- 1901. Legal powerMain Idea: American appropriation of new non-continental district brings about more jobs for Congress. such as the determination of whether or non to allow American citizenship to the territory’s native dwellers Thesis: American expansionism in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century was. to a big extent. a continuance of past United States expansionism. while besides going with old expansionism in some facets. Detailss: * Manifest Destiny- Much like West. America had the â€Å"God-given† responsibility to spread out and distribute its influence ( Document B. Document E ) * Imperialism was more of a competition than Western enlargement. America was viing with other states in its race to procure more district ( Document A. Document B. Document C ) During the period of clip between the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. America was traveling through important alterations. Following a revolution in Cuba against the Spanish. and the Americans step ining to get down the Spanish-American War. the Americans received several territorial grants from their defeated opposition. Thus. America started on the way to imperialism. traveling to derive several more districts in a short sum of clip. Such an enlargement in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century was. to a big extent. a continuance of past United States expansionism. while besides going with old expansionism in some facets.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Steve Anastasia Essays - The Great Gatsby, English-language Films

Steve Anastasia 3 / 6 / 00 G Nick Carraway Nick Carraway has a very important part in this novel. He isn't just one character among several others. It is through his eyes and ears that we form our opinions on the other characters. Often, readers of this novel confuse Nick's views with those of F. Scott Fitzgerald's because the fictional world he has created closely resembles the world he himself experienced. But not all narrators are the voice of the author. Before considering the gap between author and narrator, we should remember how we, the readers, respond to the narrator's perspective, especially when that voice belongs to a character who, like Nick, is an active participant in the story. When we, the readers, read any work of fiction, no matter how realistic or fabulous, we undergo a suspension of disbelief. The fictional world creates a new set of boundaries, making possible or credible events and reactions that might not commonly occur in the real world, but which have a logic or a plausibility to them in that fictional world. In order for this to be convincing, we trust the narrator. We take on his perspective, if not totally, then substantially. He becomes our eyes and ears in this world and we have to see him as reliable if we are to proceed with the story's development. In The Great Gatsby, Nick goes to some length to establish his credibility, indeed his moral integrity, in telling this story about this great man called Gatsby. He begins with a reflection on his own upbringing, quoting his father's words about Nick's advantages, which we could assume were material but, he soon made it clear that they were spiritual or moral advantages. Nick wants his reader to know that his upbringing gave him the moral fiber with which to withstand and pass judgment on an amoral world, such as the one he had observed the previous summer. He says, rather pompously, that as a consequence of such an upbringing, he is "inclined to reserve all judgments" about other people, but then he says that such "tolerance . . . has a limit". This is the first sign that we can trust this narrator to give us an even-handed insight to the story that is about to unfold. But, as we later learn, he neither reserves all judgments nor does his tolerance reach its limit. Nick is very part ial in his way of telling the story about several characters. He admits early into the story that he makes an exception of judging Gatsby, for whom he is prepared to suspend both the moral code of his upbringing and the limit of intolerance, because Gatsby had an extraordinary gift for hope, a romantic readiness. This inspired him to a level of friendship and loyalty that Nick seems unprepared to extend towards others in the novel. Nick overlooks the moral implication of Gatsby's bootlegging, his association with speakeasies, and with Meyer Wolfsheim, the man rumored to have fixed the World Series in 1919. Yet, he is contemptuous of Jordan Baker for cheating in a mere golf game. And while he says that he is prepared to forgive this sort of behavior in a woman: It made no difference to me. Dishonesty in a woman is a thing you never blame too deeply - I was casually sorry, and then I forgot, it seems that he cannot accept her for being incurably dishonest and then reflects that his one cardinal virtue is that he is one of the few honest people he has ever known. When it comes to judging women - or perhaps only potential lovers - not only are they judged, they are judged by how well they stand up to his own virtues. Nick leaves the mid-West after he returns from the war, understandably restless and at odds with the traditional, conservative values that, from his account, haven't changed in spite of the tumult of the war. It is this insularity from a changed world no longer structured by the values that had sent young men to war, that decides him to go East, to New York, and learn about bonds. But after one summer out East, a remarkable summer for this morally advantaged