Friday, December 27, 2019
In speech-act theory, illocutionary forceÃ refers to a speakers intention in delivering an utteranceÃ or to the kind of illocutionary act the speaker is performing. Also known as an illocutionary functionÃ or illocutionary point. In Syntax: Structure, Meaning, and Function (1997), Van Vallin and LaPolla state that illocutionary force refers to whether an utterance is an assertion, a question, a command or an expression of a wish. These are different types of illocutionary force, which means that we can talk about interrogative illocutionary force, imperative illocutionary force, optative illocutionary force, and declarative illocutionary force. The terms illocutionary act and illocutionary force were introduced by British linguistic philosopher John L. Austin in How to Do Things With Words (1962). Examples and Observations Illocutionary Act and Illocutionary Force [A]n illocutionary act refers to the type of function a speaker intends to accomplish in the course of producing an utterance. It is an act accomplished in speaking and defined within a system of social conventions. Thus, if John says to Mary Pass me the glasses, please, he performs the illocutionary act of requesting or ordering Mary to hand the glasses over to him. The functions or actions just mentioned are also referred to as the illocutionary force or illocutionary point of the speech act. The illocutionary force of a speech act is the effect a speech act is intended to have by a speaker. Indeed, the term speech act in its narrow sense is often taken to refer specifically to illocutionary act.(Yan Huang, The Oxford Dictionary of Pragmatics. Oxford University Press, 2012) Illocutionary Force Indicating Devices There are different devices used to indicate how an illocutionary force must be interpreted. For example, Open the door and Could you open the door have the same propositional content (open the door), but they represent different illocutionary actsÃ¢â¬âan order and a request respectively. These devices that aid the hearer in identifying the illocutionary force of the utterance are referred to as the illocutionary force indicating devices or IFIDs [also called illocutionary force markers]. Performative verbs, mood, word order, intonation, stress are examples of IFIDs.(Elizabeth Flores Salgado,Ã The Pragmatics of Requests and Apologies. John Benjamins, 2011) I may indicate the kind of illocutionary act I am performing by beginning the sentence with I apologize, I warn, I state, etc. Often, in actual speech situations, the context will make it clear what the illocutionary force of the utterance is, without its being necessary to invoke the appropriate explicit illocutionary force indicator.(John R. Searle,Ã Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge University Press, 1969) "I Was Just Saying That" Kenneth Parcell: Im sorry, Mr. Jordan. Im just overworked. With my page duties and being Mr. Donaghys assistant, theres not enough hours in the day.Tracy Jordan: Im sorry about that. But just let me know if theres any way I can help.Kenneth: Actually, there is one thing...Tracy: No! I was just saying that! Why cant you read human facial cues (Jack McBrayer and Tracy Morgan, Cutbacks. 30 Rock, April 9, 2009) Pragmatic Competence Achieving pragmatic competence involves the ability to understand the illocutionary force of an utterance, that is, what a speaker intends by making it. This is particularly important in cross-cultural encounters since the same form (e.g. When are you leaving?) can vary in its illocutionary force depending on the context in which it is made (e.g. May I have a ride with you? or Dont you think it is time for you to go?).(Sandra Lee McKay, Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford University Press, 2002) What I Really Mean When I say how are you to a co-worker, I really mean hello. Although I know what I mean by how are you, it is possible that the receiver does not know that I mean hello and actually proceeds to give me a fifteen-minute discourse on his various maladies.(George Ritzer, Sociology: A Multiple Paradigm Science. Allyn Bacon, 1980)
Thursday, December 19, 2019
NATIONAL AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS AND THEIR IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT APRIL 3, 2011 Financial Sector An economyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial markets are critical to its overall growth and development. Banking systems and stock markets enhance growth and are considered the main factor in poverty reduction. Strong financial systems provide reliable and accessible information that lowers transaction costs, which in turn bolsters resource allocation and economic growth. Development Banks are one such member of the financial institutions that can affect growth and development of a country and the regions within its sphere of influence if it provides the accessibility, stability, and efficiency in financial resource allocation to deficitÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦2. It is a specialized financial institution which provides medium term and long-term lending facilities. 3. It is a multipurpose financial institution. Besides providing financial help it undertakes promotional activities also. It helps an enterprise from its planning to operational level. 4. The objective of these banks is to serve p ublic interest rather than earning profits. 5. Development banks react to the socio-economic needs of development 6. The role of a development Bank is of a Gap Filler. When assistance from other sources is not sufficient then this channel helps. It does not compete with normal channel of finance. 7. Development banks primarily aim to accelerate the rate of growth. It helps industrialization specific and economic development in general Principal Source of Funds for Development Banks (Resources Available) Most Development Banks including the Caribbean Development Banks source of funds are of two kinds: ordinary operations and special operations. Ordinary operations are financed from share capital, the proceeds of loans raised in capital markets or borrowed or otherwise acquired by e.g. CDB for inclusion in its Ordinary Capital Resources (OCR) and its ordinary reserves. Regionally, CDB special operations are financed from the Special Development Fund (SDF) (see Appendix C) andShow MoreRelatedThe Negative Impacts Of International Financial Institutions In Africa, Africa991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesresources. The governments of some regions in the country received aids from International financial institutions (IFI) Ã¢â¬â and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) Ã¢â¬â to increase productivity and industrial capacities to boost their economic growth faster. However, there has been a huge negative impact on the conditions of local economy and agricultural productions, natural resources, employment and the services of education and health care. This affects similarly to other developingRead MoreRelationship Between Financial Development And Economic Growth922 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction The relationship between financial development and economic growth has elicited plenty of debate over the last few years. There are numerous researchers who have undertaken substantive empirical studies on this subject and many of them have concluded that there exists a positive relationship between financial development and economic growth. For instance, King and Levine (1993) conclude that financial development is a good predictor of future growth; while, Beck et al, (2000) suggestsRead MoreThe Impacts of the IMF and the World Bank Essay937 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Impacts of the IMF and the World Bank The World Bank and the International Monetary fund make up major parts of the UNs Economic sector. For both institutions the groundwork was laid in the Bretton Woods conference. The World Banks initial task was to facilitate reconstruction in the post- World War II Europe. It generates capital fund from member state contributions and from international financial markers. 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The extent of economic growth depends on the type of the additional products that the economy produces from its investment projects. It has been an instrumental aspect in the growth of Cincinnati. Cincinnati is comprised of a diverseRead MoreThe World Bank And Its Effects On Developing Countries Essay1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction The World Bank was created at the end of World War II during the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. The main goals of the financial institution back then was to help reconstruct Western Europe, and also establish a more integrated capitalist world market system (The Origins of the IMF and World Bank, 2011). Today, the World Bank is geared more towards poverty reduction in developing countries, mainly through financial and technical support, and many critics analyze the World BankÃ¢â¬â¢s involvementRead MoreEssay On Remittance1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRemittances Impact on Financial Development: Moldova Abstract Remittances, funds received from migrants working abroad have becoming a significant source of export income on developing countries. This paper examines with annual data on remittance flows to financial development during 1996-2016, whether remittances contribute to increasing aggregate level of domestic credit to private sector and broad money (M2). Using time series data over 21 years, we expect to find that the growth of remittancesRead MoreEssay on The Impact of the Remittances in Latin America1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesenvironment; due to the underdevelopment and inequality of the region. Because they relative importance, trends in migration and the impact of remittances in population of Latin America are the main topics that we will analyze in this research focusing on reduction of poverty and inequality. This research will aim to answer the next: Do remittances finance development in the region? Do they contribute to reduce poverty? Do they increase the inequality or help to reduce it? Do remittances are usedRead MoreImproving Health, Education, And The Environment1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesenvironment. These goals were endorsed by 189 countries at the September 2000 UN Millennium General Assembly in New York. They focus on significant, measurable improvements for the efforts of the World Bank Group, governments, other international organizations, and other partners in the development community. The MDGs grew out of the agreements and resolutions that have resulted from world conferences organized by the UN in the past 10Ã¢â¬â15 years. Each goal is to be achieved by 2015, with progress toRead MoreWhat Is The Link Between The Expansion Of Bank Loans In Gapan1035 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespositive dependence of GDP improvement due to the developments in M3 and bank loans to the non-fina ncial private sector. These discoveries are consistent with economic theory and the findings of Fisher and Seater (1993) and McCandless and Weber (1995). The EG co-integration test does not approve a statistically significant connection between GDP and M3 or GDP and bank loans to the non-financial private sector. Nevertheless, the link between the volume of bank loans to the non-financial private sector and
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
1994 DBQ Outline Sample Essay Q: To what extent was late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century United States expansionism a continuance of past United States expansionism and to what extent was it a going? Use the paperss and your cognition of United States history to 1914 to build your reply Documents: A- 1885. CartoonMain Idea: British. German. and Russian imperialists are all taking portion in enlargement into lands around the universe. in continents such as Africa and Asia. B- 1885. WritingMain Idea: White influence will shortly do an inevitable growing into all parts of the Earth. taking to a Ã¢â¬Å"survival of the fittestÃ¢â¬ between viing races. C- 1897. WritingMain Idea: America must react to expansionism in the Pacific by other states by beef uping its great sea power. D- 1899. ArgumentMain Idea: Imperialism and enlargement go against traditional American values. bewraying the Declaration of Independence and the Fundamental law E- 1900. AddressMain Idea: America has the God-given responsibility to spread out and distribute its influence around the universe. and the state should non give up district obtained in the Pacific and Asia. F- 1904. AddressMain Idea: American expansionism isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a consequence of the hungriness for land and resources. but a desire to convey assistance to less fortunate peoples and convey stableness and prosperity to their societies. G- 1900. CartoonMain Idea: American diplomatic negotiations helped make the Ã¢â¬Å"open doorÃ¢â¬ in China. leting other states to partake in the wealth of the state. H- 1901. Legal powerMain Idea: American appropriation of new non-continental district brings about more jobs for Congress. such as the determination of whether or non to allow American citizenship to the territoryÃ¢â¬â¢s native dwellers Thesis: American expansionism in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century was. to a big extent. a continuance of past United States expansionism. while besides going with old expansionism in some facets. Detailss: * Manifest Destiny- Much like West. America had the Ã¢â¬Å"God-givenÃ¢â¬ responsibility to spread out and distribute its influence ( Document B. Document E ) * Imperialism was more of a competition than Western enlargement. America was viing with other states in its race to procure more district ( Document A. Document B. Document C ) During the period of clip between the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. America was traveling through important alterations. Following a revolution in Cuba against the Spanish. and the Americans step ining to get down the Spanish-American War. the Americans received several territorial grants from their defeated opposition. Thus. America started on the way to imperialism. traveling to derive several more districts in a short sum of clip. Such an enlargement in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century was. to a big extent. a continuance of past United States expansionism. while besides going with old expansionism in some facets.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Steve Anastasia 3 / 6 / 00 G Nick Carraway Nick Carraway has a very important part in this novel. He isn't just one character among several others. It is through his eyes and ears that we form our opinions on the other characters. Often, readers of this novel confuse Nick's views with those of F. Scott Fitzgerald's because the fictional world he has created closely resembles the world he himself experienced. But not all narrators are the voice of the author. Before considering the gap between author and narrator, we should remember how we, the readers, respond to the narrator's perspective, especially when that voice belongs to a character who, like Nick, is an active participant in the story. When we, the readers, read any work of fiction, no matter how realistic or fabulous, we undergo a suspension of disbelief. The fictional world creates a new set of boundaries, making possible or credible events and reactions that might not commonly occur in the real world, but which have a logic or a plausibility to them in that fictional world. In order for this to be convincing, we trust the narrator. We take on his perspective, if not totally, then substantially. He becomes our eyes and ears in this world and we have to see him as reliable if we are to proceed with the story's development. In The Great Gatsby, Nick goes to some length to establish his credibility, indeed his moral integrity, in telling this story about this great man called Gatsby. He begins with a reflection on his own upbringing, quoting his father's words about Nick's advantages, which we could assume were material but, he soon made it clear that they were spiritual or moral advantages. Nick wants his reader to know that his upbringing gave him the moral fiber with which to withstand and pass judgment on an amoral world, such as the one he had observed the previous summer. He says, rather pompously, that as a consequence of such an upbringing, he is "inclined to reserve all judgments" about other people, but then he says that such "tolerance . . . has a limit". This is the first sign that we can trust this narrator to give us an even-handed insight to the story that is about to unfold. But, as we later learn, he neither reserves all judgments nor does his tolerance reach its limit. Nick is very part ial in his way of telling the story about several characters. He admits early into the story that he makes an exception of judging Gatsby, for whom he is prepared to suspend both the moral code of his upbringing and the limit of intolerance, because Gatsby had an extraordinary gift for hope, a romantic readiness. This inspired him to a level of friendship and loyalty that Nick seems unprepared to extend towards others in the novel. Nick overlooks the moral implication of Gatsby's bootlegging, his association with speakeasies, and with Meyer Wolfsheim, the man rumored to have fixed the World Series in 1919. Yet, he is contemptuous of Jordan Baker for cheating in a mere golf game. And while he says that he is prepared to forgive this sort of behavior in a woman: It made no difference to me. Dishonesty in a woman is a thing you never blame too deeply - I was casually sorry, and then I forgot, it seems that he cannot accept her for being incurably dishonest and then reflects that his one cardinal virtue is that he is one of the few honest people he has ever known. When it comes to judging women - or perhaps only potential lovers - not only are they judged, they are judged by how well they stand up to his own virtues. Nick leaves the mid-West after he returns from the war, understandably restless and at odds with the traditional, conservative values that, from his account, haven't changed in spite of the tumult of the war. It is this insularity from a changed world no longer structured by the values that had sent young men to war, that decides him to go East, to New York, and learn about bonds. But after one summer out East, a remarkable summer for this morally advantaged