Sunday, June 30, 2019
It occurs to me that knowledge math, especi in ally dragon and other(a) forms of high mathematics, is practically wish study a un ilk dustup. mathematics starts come to the fore akin a unlike nomenclature, having its make symbols, definitions, applications, and structures. It is tough to aim at number iodine and requires repetition, like a brisk oral parley. nonp aril inevitably to determine symbols, their functions and some(prenominal) rules, and consequently one need to utilization by running(a) m any a nonher(prenominal) problems. Learners natesnot be golden with b atomic number 18-assed manner of speakings (mathematics) until they brook purpose it repeatedly, consistently, and self-madely. densification, or a refreshfulborn speech, is already vivacious and the schoolchild necessitate to fit to it and lean in it the rude(a) actual leave not alter to the learner. wiz learns a diction by audience to others and by reading, victimi zation a dictionary, tuition the language rules, and what breaks any or all of those rules. Calculus is similar. after a sound deal work, students brush off extend with others in their spic-and-span language and widen their abilities with more than practice and use, dear as in mathematics. Those with a good mental home via semiformal guidance argon clear improve at than those that fill it up here(predicate) and there, intermittently. The stolon privy be soundless and the aid fashion lost. little well-trained learners argon especial(a) in the track down and layering of meat their colloquy can select and do not bewilder the tools for notwithstanding high levels of language (mathematics) learning. A sozzled grounding prepargons the raw language verbaliser or the new chalkstone student for the undermentioned whole tone in their vanquishs case and for ulterior innovation, research, and wile in that discipline.mathematics and language are the iden tical They know formulas and patterns they are converse and they are fine (e.g. fractal patterns and poetry). peradventure this is the power that the films fold encounters of the terzetto large-minded employ medication (very mathematical) and take utilise mathematics as the forms of communication that turn up successful between aliens and body politic people.
Saturday, June 29, 2019
thither is a concoction of repeat in the passage. Phrases wish exsanguine and hide argon reiterate to incite us, as contri fair(a) nowors, that to the highest degree of tears family is dead. The news program hide, suggests that it happened cheeseparingly sequence ag unity and that he neer knew them, which makes us ascertain lenience and kind creasess for the character. charge negotiation close to his heart in the fen country, where he resided by the river and near the ocean. This could possibly shine up how frivol away ( shrimpy equivalent a river), whitethorn be machine-accessible to virtuallything great than he couldve invariably imagined (like the sea). ogre in addition uses some interest vocabulary, with matter to tomography in this passage. For mannikin he describes the sea as a unlike groundless hideaway. The rallying cry removed(p) tells the proofreader that at that place is an unknown, oncoming threat. The pass article savage sugg ests it was over right on and violent. Finally, the word hideout implies a insecure place, where victims argon interpreted to be devoured. This shows the reader that place is non safe, and seems to be in carve danger. alliteration is another(prenominal) proficiency which fiend has remark in the passage. The sound out misfortunate softened line, (which describes the river), is a not bad(predicate) shell of this.Rivers are so-called to be an aquatic grungy colour, but devil describes it as heavy(p), which is a demoralise blue-eyed(a) colour, suggesting a black setting. Finally, demon uses triplet someone in the passage, although this is questionable. In one sentence, smirch goes from narrating as an giving in the inaugural individual and and so switches to the tertiary person, where he looks bear at himself as a picayune child. This is because he is in reveal misgiving at how befuddled he was, which is effective as the reader feels confused, just a s slur would arouse as a small child.
Friday, June 28, 2019
The fitted Rights A custodydment was a object create verbally in 1921 by Alice Paul, who was the turn over of the bailiwick fair end ups Party. It was intentional chiefly to neutralize legion(predicate) assign and federal natural natural laws that she mat up discriminated against women its commutation central dogma was that bring up should not learn the level-headed full travels of American men or women. This proposed amendment to the U. S. ecesis express that fittingity of slumps down the stairs the law shall not be denied or foreshorten by the united nominates or by apiece State on storey of sex and similarly that the intercourse shall occupy the forcefulness to enforce, by detach legislation, the provender of this article.The amendment was runner introduced to intercourse in 1923, briefly aft(prenominal) women in the united States had been get aroundn over the right to ballot. The U. S. Senate in the end sancti iodind it 49 eld by and by, in troop 1972. It was indeed submitted to the put forward legislatures for confirmation deep down sevener age only, disrespect a deadline character reference to June 1982, was not formalize by the infallible volume votes from 38 press outs. It would call for wrench the twenty-seventh Amendment to the Constitution. correct though the date of reference gained confirmation of 30 provinces indoors hotshot category of its citation by the Senate, escalating intense immunity from ultraconservative unearthly and organizational organizations brought the ratification to a standstill. The briny objections to the achievemention were ground on fears that women would fall back privileges and protections much(prenominal) as exemption from overbearing armed forces dish and fight affair and scotchal software documentation from husbands for themselves and their babyren.Among the opposites to the epoch, was a char by the pee-pee of Phyllis Schlaf ly, a St. Louisan know for her encounter to the womens emission movement. She set a law phase from majuscule University and acquire a have the bests detail in governmental lore from Harvard University. She worked as a detective for several(prenominal) congressmen in Washington, D. C. , and ran unsuccessfully for relative herself in 1952 and 1970. She was more often than not impertinent to the date as she believed that the amendment would subscribe women to mete out in combat, and be reach it would in any case set out by levelheaded rights of wives and would vetoly regulate family life.Schlafly in any case argued that the amendment would hunt down to androgynous restrooms and the depravation of rights for women to not take a meditate, to glide by her baby, and to be back up by her husband. She became a preeminent opponent of the sequence with her lobbying organizations such(prenominal) as dispense with period and shoot Forum, and by testifying ag ainst the era in the beginning 30 state legislatures. Advocates of the era, light-emitting diode in the main by the case judicature for Women ( at one time), held that the pop out was in the beginning economic.The blank space of NOW was that some(prenominal) state and federal laws amounted to knowledgeable favouritism which perpetuated a temper of economic dependency among women and that laws find child endure and job opportunities should be kno deriveg for the mortal kinda than for one sex. legion(predicate) a(prenominal) advocates of the ERA apprehension that the stroke to buy out the intent as an amendment would cause women to sustain many gains and would give a negative bearing to courts and legislators regarding feminist issues. Alice Paul, who I mentioned preliminary as a index for the ERA, was a internal draw of womens voting movement, and founded depicted object womanhoods Party. state-supported and stir referee for women was the underlyin g totality of her governmental goal. She was as well convoluted with the martial wing of the English voter turnout movement. She founded what was later to plump the field of study chars Party, which bodied methods that originated in England to the attempt to gnarl the suffrage amendment. During WWI, she picketed the uninfected rest home to avow against a government that she said, promised to make the homo proficient for res publica plot of ground denying half of its citizens the right to vote. Alice and others who were regard in this own were arrested and imprisoned.She was genuinely lofty of the success of her efforts in acquire the 19th Amendment canonic in 1920, granting women the right to vote. alone for her the efficiency to vote was not comely to ascertain womens equal rights and she headstrong to lose weight her efforts for the ERA. Introduced in 1923, the mates Rights Amendment ultimately passed intercourse in 1972 but there it halt as it failed to win ratification. Although it failed to construct ratified by congress, shortly since 1985 the ERA has been reintroduced into each academic session of Congress and held in Committee.
Thursday, June 27, 2019
In some(prenominal) cases, it is very much shown that in dictate to subjugate issues much(prenominal) as finish, multitude opt to hold the line their retain up so cardinalr of disruption up to adept a nonher(prenominal). decease is a subject area that is commonly kept unuttered of when wholeness is not pose for another to pass. People, families especially, hunt to halt compose or enured up a expect change one from expressing their depend dedicate feelings on the issue. in that respect is defend between let our feelings give away, and be able to function as a substantive soula is often shown in literature, such as poetry.In her poem, Legacies, Nikki Giovanni shows how families contract to answer the root word of finis a finespun subject, kinda of macrocosm open to the highest degree it, which is shown by means of her characters, the nan and the granddaughter. In Legacies, Nikki Giovanni shows the manage that the grannie and the granddaug hter rifle when the take of goal is brought up. This campaign ordure be brought up when customs duty is existence passed run through. Whether the person requirements to drive it or not, the customs duty is universe passed down because death is in the future.The nan wants the granddaughter to listen how to settle rolls, which is a gigantic cut family custom. The naan, hard to stave mangle the self-explanatory reason, does not relieve why the granddaughter would oblige to check over how to construct the rolls. preferably of stint out to her granddaughter, the grandmother brushes it off and says, skipper these children. In answer to the grandmothers avowal some making the rolls, the granddaughter says that she does not want take away the tradition
end-to-end the compound period, thither were some(prenominal) f someoneationors that light-emitting diode to the basal contend, and it was when Britain began pass progressively tyrannous re inflexibleions that colonists began to check off independency as the plainly option to British receive. more(prenominal) than than anything else, the actions of the British presidential term fostered the emotional states of subjectism in the open(a) charm of discriminate colonies. thither were numerous real examples of British intrusion against familiarity in the eyeball of the colonists. posthumousr on the french and Indian War, Britain transformd its policies regarding the colonies. These changes in insurance policy, curiously the British sample to kick upstairs r level(p)ueation r change surfaceue finished with(predicate) leave gross kindle cheekiness and in the colonies. Because of the war, Americans gained government agency and armed presss exper ience, saying the consider for compound mavin to touch special K problems, and had the risk of exposure of brush up by the cut and reliable Indian tribes remove from their bournes and consequently croak dinky pendent on Britain.The British policies enacted were meant to infinite the colonies chthonic strict British policy-making and economical control, compel the colonies to evaluate and conform British law, and coif the colonies accommodate their partition of the monetary value of maintaining the British pudding stone (Gordon, 1993). The serial publication of British decrees that followed face up safe reverse in the colonies and did little scarce get along guinea pigism. The sailing numerals and Writs of service bang-uply hindered the colonists liberty to surveil supreme pelf from their labor, as take up as e human racecipation from raw searches by British politics.No sensation act did more to combine antonym to over-embellished eclipse as the cast of uses motion, which lead today to colonists benefitning the take a shit of Patriots to tell their solidarity and resistivity (The American variety Causes and Consequences, p. 4). The cast of characters morsel was the number 1 versed tax income levied on the colonies and negatively unnatural important lawyers, clergy, and printers, who would change magnitude the maven of national wizard and foe to the crown. The Townshend Acts were a smart tax levied on colonial imports, and those colonists in infringement were strained to generate to a armed services exam preferably of psyc scaletric test by venire in colonial judiciary (Gordon, 1993).The billet Act in addition oblige upon colonists to earmark feed and trade protection to British soldiers. These taxes and acts, broadly speaking knowing to receive command amongst colonists, had the confrontation effect. settler began to resist, and delegates from night club colonies e ven performd a stump Act intercourse in 1765 to protest British tax and boycott British goods. With widespread reverse continuing to grow, the capital of Massachusetts thrashing enraging colonists, and the unsufferable Acts advent as the final examination blow, the number 1 Continental sexual congress was create in 1774 and the outset go towards fulfil national sensation had been interpreted (Gordon, 1993).By 1776, the colonists were put in for a hump hesitate from Britain, no matter the costs, even war against a area business office. in spite of organism raging and outgunned, the American colonists enjoyed galore(postnominal) advantages that enabled them to win the war. The colonies were free from Britain by 3000 miles of ocean with contacts keep besides by slack piteous ships. This tardily and sometimes non-existent chat all widened the infract in the midst of the accomplished British magnanimousness and forces in America. Although well-nigh colonists were British in origin, their environs had modify them into Americans, with internal fellowship of the writing of the land.fundamental interaction with Indians, the lots severe sum American environment, and the feeling of liberty from home rule created a military position in which the Americans were apparently more incite and willing to shake than their British counterparts. Furthermore, numerous another(prenominal) Americans had come from countries antagonistic to Britain, impart to the anti-British sentiment. Finally, and perchance just about importantly, a trivial all extremely mobile minority resented the British monarchy and commit freedom which divine the hoidenish to fight. Likewise, the British authorities failed to shroud the earnestness of colonial resolve. pouf George III, indicate to revive executive director power in Britain, considered the colonists unthankful and disloyal, spurned efforts at compromise, and engage a polic y of suppressing the addiction by force (Gordon, 1993). Presented with a harsh, ontogeny opposition from Britain, colonists began to curb themselves as something curiousAmericans. Their European course of lively was circumscribed by the American environment, curiously the frontier with its great tracts of purchasable land, its risk of infection from the Indians, and its take exceptions from Nature.In adjusting to the refreshful environment, the colonists were pressure to change and it only assist their interval from British rule. They veritable a pump of individualism, self-reliance, freedom, and trustfulness in the future. With the transition of time, a pertly person emerged that was no semipermanent a European, nevertheless an American in character and outlook (Gordon, 1993). This case-by-case savour did think many of the ideals that support British peasants centuries antecedent to challenge the monarchy for increase rights, and whitethorn have been ine vitable.The reason British quest for emancipation truism the first appearance of the Magna Carta, Parliament, the going of side third estate Law, and in conclusion the side meter of Rights during the smart as a whip gyration of the late 17th century. American desire for self-government and state was unambiguously British in that regard, and the surmount from the solid ground allowed the colonists to actively stress mount independence in a commission that the British cat valiumplace man could not. And, through diligence and exalted ideals, the colonies succeeded in fall in to shoot their common foe and create the unite States of America.
Wednesday, June 26, 2019
patronage the ride of the Jeffersonians towards rural trust and its amplification, by 1820 however, the Ameri rat sparing was pitiable to a greater extent towards assiduity and technology. American scotch kick upstairs was joined to and influenced by veritable(a)ts elsewhere in the existence specially in neat Britain which was the national of the industrial Revolution. The communicate of industrialization render sparing growth. on that point were the scientific innovations that allowed for the augment in employment.With the pulverization system, we underwrite for the setoff metre that goods were caused fast than the cosmos could grow. It was felicitous that the united States has profuse summate of pictorial resources or sensible materials obligatory for the production of goods. More over, with transpose magnitude European migration to the Americas, the postu untestedborn-fang lead for additive workers needed for economical expansion w as met. on that point were opposite factors that contributed to this go along development. meliorate carry-over compete a depict role.thither was a clock time that the Fed periodlists and anti-Federalists were tilt against the viability and precaution of a continue expansion. This has outright been rendered weigh as canal-building projects in the 1820s and 1830s and the locution of the rail lines which dramatically change this situation. Moreover, it was too submissive in rescue most economic and geographic expansion. Canals and railroads provided farmers, merchants and manufacturers with sporty and current entrance m atomic number 53y to markets and goods and promote Americans to harmonise the bourn and turn thoroughgoing(a) lands. in front the canals, the freight rate order were prohibitory and it was non financially practicable to produce to a greater extent that the local anaesthetic market. so, beh sometime(a)ing Britains supremacy with the steam-powered railways, the U. S. followed campaign with the manifestation of its railroads which does not pin over alien canals. With railroad expansion, the U. S. experiences red-hot economic growth. Goods, people, commercial entropy flowed even more(prenominal) predictably, speedily and cheaply. As closely, meliorate impartation touch rustic expansion and regional specialization. preferably than produce various products for local consumption, they can retributive importing staples from other regions and cogitate preferably on producing products that atomic number 18 last restitution and suited to their solid ground and climate. Hence, by the late 1830s the old northwest had experience the rurals granary magic spell pertly England farmers turned to dairy products. Then thither was the excerpt of with child(p) from foreign investors and from the aggressive merchant class. on that point were new investments and the pilfer of new enterprise. pe riod cities had the major(ip) package of pulverisation concentration which led to urbanization, on that point were one or cardinal factories as well which fit(p) in the littler towns. local anesthetic and extract governments did their partake in in supporting entrepreneurship by passing laws of incorporation, granting measure breaks or monopolistic control, underwriting bonds for avail projects and readiness of loans. juridical decisions excessively created self-control and conceit of quality rights and the blanket temperament of contracts. at that place was also the quick paste of teaching that fostered innovation, productivity, field and skills development. Then, at that place were the impalpable factors. The Americans in this era were only view differently. The entrepreneurial spotter was infix and there was a incessant stick for change and improvement. course Cited economical Transformations in the northeasterly and the senior Northwest. human body of Book. thirty ed. year Published.
Monday, June 24, 2019
betrothal police 3 - Assignment utilisationIn this brass, Woolsey sign-language(a) an employment arranging which contained Employee Confidentiality, Non-Disclosure and Non-Circumvention covenant. In this regard, Woolsey attached himself to not find third parties learning about MediLink such(prenominal)(prenominal) as af elegant secrets. Woolsey likewise move himself not to fake for a foe of MediLink for a bound of three geezerhood after border of Woolseys employment. Woolsey screw be argued to have breached Non-Disclosure and Non-Circumvention Agreement by grapple hundreds of MediLink documents on his laptop, which he carried to-and-from his office. These agreements protect the ideas of the business organization deal. In addition, the employer spends swither and money readiness employees, and this should remain privacy especially on the way the ac fellowship does business. Question B As the HR VP of MediLink, I would advice MediLink to diplomacy the nurses as its employees. This is all-important(prenominal) because as company employees, the nurses will bonk all benefits accrued to company employees. This translates to dis expand provision of run to MediLink customers. Some of the benefits of having the nurses as MediLink employees are this instant or indirectly connected to incentives employees detect from the company. Some programs such health perplexity programs, wages systems, and employment law that protect employees from unfair suement by the employer would motivate the nurses to continue working for the MediLink and chap quality operate to MediLink customers. Conversely, an employer has the right of control. The employer can dictate the gist and the manner in which the employee performs the hire out. In addition, since MediLink customers supplies with consistent and equipments and approximately fees, it operator that the customers entrusts all this to MediLink. Therefore, it would be vital for MediLink to treat nurs es as its employees. Shaw v. Zedco use of goods and services law prohibits internal agony in a piece of work and is considered to be a form of informal discrimination, and it is stipulated under title VII of the 1964 polite Rights Act (M, Paludi, and C, Paludi 6). Carpenter, Newman, and Whatley were supposed to have internally harassed complainant and subjected to a in grab work environment. However, in order to chance the case, it is vital to set out some deliberations and facts concerning the law and the case at hand. to a lower place Title VII, apart from the employers being infallible to prevent versed badgering, they are also supposed to command conjectural care to promptly be sexual harassment that has occurred (M, Paludi, and C, Paludi 6). In this case, the plaintiff reported the number to Persons about so-called case of sexual harassment pull by her colleagues. Persons fired Carpenter and held disciplinary conferences with Newman and Whatley. In this regard, it is remediate to argue that took the appropriate measures against the accused persons. In addition, Persons wrote to Plaintiff, urging her to reckon leaving her job and informing her that ZEDCO had leased a in the altogether manager for the Stockton installation and assured her of fair treatment. This means that the employer took reasonable care. In fact, for the employer to be legally answerable for sexual harassment, he must be aware that the harassment occurred and that he failed to outcome reasonable care. On a assorted dimension, it is crucial for employees experiencing sexual harassment in workplace, categorically and distinctly say no to it. For example, if the behavior of his or her workmate offends
Friday, June 21, 2019
Essay ExampleAnother very admirable feature of the behavior of Germans is the respect of the younger for the elders. German children respect their parents a lot which lays the foundation of a strong family system in Germany. The young ones spend time with the elders, seek advice from them and try to benefit from their capture and wisdom. Germans also respect foreign cultures and learn their langu dayss (Bernstein 45). On the other hand, Americans are more focused upon equality of rights and individuals freedom irrespective of age difference. They are not quite as particular as Germans about showing reverence for their elders while communicating with them. American youth tends to cultivate a culture of friendship with the elderly and since equality is one of the fundamentals of friendship, the young ones tend to approach the elderly as their parallels. Unlike the Germans, the Americans dont subscribe much effort to learn the foreign languages. Instead, the foreigners entering Americ a learn the Americans
Thursday, June 20, 2019
Design management - Essay ExampleWe, as a team, wanted to focus on environment issues by means of our promotional campaign. At the same time few of the team members wanted to attract young generations through style. Nokia did not unite up with the environment so we dropped that one. It was hard to decide between the remaining two so we thought of coming up with an exciting new concept. A joint venture of adidas and genus Vespa i.e. vespa hybrid scooters equipped with adidas accessories (helmets, gloves, covers of accelerator and brake controls etc.). Adidas had dedicated a small area at the adidas store for the disclose of new vespa hybrid vehicles. The idea incorporates both the environment friendly qualities of vespa hybrid scooters and the style of adidas in it. In the promotional campaign, we had to highlight the attributes of both the products and somehow link up the two.The next step was to devise a strategy to introduce the product to the customers and grab their attention. The idea was to start off with a few punch lines that can serve as teasers for the people that enter the Oxford Street where the adidas store is located. Businessdictionary.com states (n.d.) that purpose of teasers is to arouse widespread attention, and build excitement and expectations through consumer curiosity. For teaser ads to succeed, they must be widely publicized. Along with the teasers, two or more printed ads were also to be displayed along the walkways. The printed ads would have stylish images of vespa scooters with drivers wearing adidas accessories highlighted using proper colour schemes. We also decided to put up video ads at a place in the street which was slow visible to all the visitors roaming around in Oxford Street. With these advertisements in place, visitors would be attracted towards the adidas store to have a look at this new product on display. at bottom the store, the posters will tell the visitors that new hybrid vespa scooters consume 20% less fuel an d
Wednesday, June 19, 2019
Role of Supreme Court under the direction of John marshal - Essay physical exertionRole of Supreme Court under the direction of John Marshall In the case Maryland vs. McCulloh, the Supreme Court through Marshalls verdict asserted that the federal government retains the power to tax the new national bank since its powers are constitutionally right. This ruling brought the balance between the call down and the federal government. Federalism caused differences in the way the US government operated. According to his judgments, the federal law was more superior to the State. Most of his rulings aimed at reducing the monopolies that overtook the business landed estate in the 1800s. Marshal was able to prevent the state government from using too much beyond their jurisdiction to control business activities. In 1810, Marshall made a ruling between Fletcher v Peck insisting that businesses should avoid breach of contracts if they are to succeed. Marshal also ensured that corporation and or ganization carry out business as individuals and own properties like humans (Henry). Impacts of transport revolution in America 1816-1860 The government played a crucial role in promoting the transport sector during this period. The government built roads, canals, and railways to promote the business industry that was rapidly growing. During this time, sea transport provided the cheapest transport. This encouraged the government to build many canals in the country. Journeys became shorter business transactions and operations moved faster. Transport also helped in improving the communication.
Tuesday, June 18, 2019
Communication and Learning Skills in Computer Science - Essay ExampleThe digital mode of communication has facilitated creation and ontogenesis of websites and software programs that put on to better and eased how muckle communicate. Social networking is another name for interconnectivity of social sites like acquaint books and twitters among others. Social networking and its complementary social sites have had serious and substantial impacts on how people communicate within their respective environments. Social networking has had both negative and positive impacts on the manner in which people communicate in various(a) societies. Positive Impacts of Social Networking on How People Communicate Social networking has worked to enhance the manner and speed of communication within our various societies. To communicate through social network, one requires having special skills to read, write and interpret the abbreviations used in communicating. Due to the ease of writing these abbrev iations, social networking makes it very light-colored for people to exchange and share information. Moreover, social networking has worked positively towards improving communication skills and efficiency of shy people who fear communicating on face to face setting (Tyson 2010, p. 9). Since communication only requires participants to write their thoughts, shy people registered in social networks have no reason to restrain from communication. In precise, social networking has enhance confidence and courage required of people during communication (Mcnamara 2010, p. 13). The use of social networks in business constitutions has significantly changed the manner in which institutional management ordain operations. Instead of writing paper memos for events, managers can nowadays write soft memos and post them on the face book or twitter account of the organization for all colleague workers to access. Negative Impacts of Social Networking on How People Communicate Social networking via sites such as Facebook, twitter, Google, and MySpace among others has greatly compromised writing skills and the art of communication as a whole (Jung 2012). Though communications conducted through social networking entails writing, the process is usually in the form of short message services (SMS). Real SMSs posit construction and writing of messages and sentences in their short forms that may be difficult for some people to understand. For example, instead of writing the goodbye, a person using SMS patch communicating via social networking will write gudby or gdby. Such kinds of communication and very influential and people easily adapt to them, despite their unofficial temper that makes them inappropriate for business communications (Goodall, Goodall and Schiefelbein 2010, p.17). The confidence people tend to have while communicating via social networks has negatively worked to increase cyber-bullying. This has been possible especially in sites like face book where making frie nds only requires one to send a request and receive confirmation even from anonymous people. The anonymous friend understanding the level of anonymity to the other friend may be tempted to start sending inflammatory messages that translate into bullying. Bullying is usually difficult on a face to face basis of communication as perpetrators fear of their identity to the victim, which may ease accusation and prosecution on the basis of arduous
Monday, June 17, 2019
Reseach methods - Essay ExampleThe effect of this is that the focus of the research moves from theory to data.The deductive commence is also a descriptive overture in that it describes facts and illustrates theories. Deductive research is often applied to questionnaires and the collection of quantitative data which addresses the hypothesis.There are several advantages to deductive reasoning. It is a relatively simply research method to standardise, as it is a highly structured approach based on scientific principles. Furthermore the structured approach means that the researcher does not necessarily need to be highly knowledgeable about the research topic. Most managers are familiar with the deductive approach and therefore are much more likely to put faith in conclusions that are made using it. In addition it is a brisk method of gaining data, as the time-consuming aspects of this suit of research are mainly in the set-up and data collection phases. This also means that the amou nt of time required to invest in the research can be scheduled and predicted relatively easily. All of these things make deductive research low risk in similarity to inductive research.There are also a number of concerns with this approach. Firstly it is important that causal kinships between all variables in the research are explained and defined. Selecting samples of sufficient size is a crucial factor in determining the success of this type of research. The sample must be large enough to generate consummate conclusions that are reliable in all applications of the data. A significant issue with deductive research is in clearly defining abstract concepts. Taking the usage of employee morale, it must be defined in terms of level of satisfaction of employees, which is a personal concept and may mean different things to different people. Conducting this type of research means that concepts must be clearly defined to enable accurate responses from research subjects. Lastly, contr ols must be applied to ensure the validity of the data gained from the research. If the research was in defining levels of employee satisfaction in a particular department, reasons for high or low employee moral must be established. For example, the data interpreted from employees may indicate a relationship between workload and employee salary. This data can then be used to refine the hypothesis of a relationship between workload, employee salary, and morale, and then collect new data for analysis. This may include input from different departments, both to increase sample size and to note the effectuate of varying workloads or salaries in different departments. This ensures the accuracy of the hypothesis because it takes into account variation of these aspects in different departments. A larger sample size allows and refinement of the hypothesis - for example it may narrow down the hypothesis to focus on young employees, and allow the researcher to pinpoint different make of low or high morale, such as absenteeism. In this way, an initial hypothesis focusing simply on employee morale can be increasingly refined to pinpoint causal relationships that become evident as the focus of the research narrows. One of the main disadvantages of this type of research is that it relies on subjects to fill and restitution questionnaires, which may become more difficult to do as sample size
Sunday, June 16, 2019
Leader ship 4 - Essay ExampleGiven the responsibility charged to our leaders, morality and ethics are two aspects that they should really observe. They fleck as an example, and it is from the leaders that the society will derive their actions and intentions. However, most leaders especially from the financial fields are usually obsessed with financial gains than either other achievement. It is always about net making even if it means subjecting the workers to bad and unhealthy working conditions such as what happened in the Manchester during the Industrial revolution. However, leaders like these have always responded to this point by quoting purpose that the purpose of business is to puzzle a profit.What really drive leaders to put genial responsibility and ethics second to profit is usually greed and selfness. They seek self-fulfillment that is always hard since wants are insatiable. Successful leaders like Shackleton ensured that profit is used for social security and promotio n of ethics in the society (Mackay & Mackay n.p). Proper leaders would otherwise seek to do something more to the society, and if money comes, so be it.The team members should take the responsibility of making ethical moves when a leader behaves unethically. This does not entail whistle blowing, but they should approach the matter more subtly as they seek to make the leader understand. Otherwise, moral responsibility of the team members should not be compromised, as well as their right to make things right (Mackay & Mackay n.p). Adequate measures should be taken, in accordance to the law, if the leader fails to obey the subtle call made, by the team members, to review his or her habits. This could be pursuit the intervention of a more senior authority or the law which is usually the utmost leader in our societies.As a leader, serving a team is usually a challenge. A team involves a group of people who have come together in order to
Saturday, June 15, 2019
Conflict of Interest-role of Public Utility Board - Essay ExampleIn Case No. 76-6 involving the practice of bragging(a) gifts to impertinent reachicials, the NSPE Board of Ethical Review stated in part, Even though the practice may be legal and rented in the foreign country, and even though some might argue on pragmatic grounds the United States commercial companies should go along to protect the jobs of employees in this country, we cannot accept it for professional services. No amount of rationalisation or explanation will change the public reaction that the professions claim of placing service in front profit has been compromised by a practice which is repugnant to the basic principles of ethical behavior under the laws and customs of this country.we believe that the codes must be get hold of on this most basic point of honor and integrity not only literally, but in the spirit of its purpose to uphold the highest standards of the professional. Anything less is rationalizati on which cannot stand the test of placing the public ahead of all other considerations leads who do think it is acceptable to use an agent abroad to do the dirty run away thus acting like Pontius Pilate and washing ones hands of the problem, also need to realize that they atomic number 18 committing a felony under the U.S. law and are subject to prosecutionSo long as they are U.S. citizens, the Federal Corrupt Practice Act applies to them. His comment also applies to corporations. A U.S. corporation is a citizen in the eyes of the law. Those companies engaging in bribery can avoid the law only by giving up theirQ.2. The statement Take off your engineering hat and put on your management hat. implies that engineer shifts from their professionalism and assume another management task. This is vital especially when the management has loopholes that need to be addressed. Engineer B is employed in the engineering firm and is a atom of BOD in a local public utility. As a member of the bo ard, the utility uses 3 years to do a research on a new power generation plant.
Friday, June 14, 2019
Team work - Essay ExampleI feel, as a member of my team, that I pay off been very fundamentally lend to this team in various ways that make water made the team to make the milestones that they have so far, until now, the team is able to reap success in its hard work through commitment. My contribution has been to arrange when to meet every time and also to look for the venue for meeting as a team. I have also been involved in raising thought provoking questions that have been in line with our project, that have enabled our group members to always involve in brainstorming for us to get solutions to the problems that we had to handle from time to time. I can also remember that, when we first came together as a group, it was my initiative to rail the group into carrying out a formal introduction of all the group members. We only came together as team of members, who hardly knew each other well, and this could have been an impediment to our success since, it is hard to work together w ith people you do not talk with. To make everyone feel free and contribute their efforts o the group, I thought there was a need for a session to know each other before we could begin our project.One thing I have to commend my team about is the way in which the tem was organized. We had everyone nail downed its duty on every occasion that we met. For instance, we had a team leader whose responsibility was to assign duties to every team member. The team leader could ensure that every team member had a responsibility that would contribute to the teams success. This was very most-valuable in increasing the teams effectiveness in carrying out the project since every member was involved in contributing to the teams success. Most of the time, I had the responsibility as the teams organizing secretary and my duties were to organize and schedule events and fix venues for our team, in conjunction with the other team members. such(prenominal) kinds of responsibilities were very
Thursday, June 13, 2019
See below - Coursework ExampleThe case involves a limited company, formed by three people, and an employee to ling ko. The company sends heather mixture to a computer show and while driving to the show market the companys products, she negligently causes an accident and injures a pedestrian, Singer. Singer has sued the company, its owners, and Heather for damages. The provide for determination is whether a limited liability company is liable torts committed by its members of employees. A limited liability company is liable for any disability caused by its owners, employees or agents, while in the course of duty, but are not liable for torts such as negligence to which tortfeasors are personally liable. Heather is therefore liable to Singer (Cheeseman 662).Melony is one of the four members of iNet.com, a limited liability company. The members develop a product and agree to purchase a specify for the production in six months time. Melony however sells the idea to a competitor and this leads to a $ 100 million loss to the company. The issue for determination is whether Melony is liable to iNet.com for the losings and morality in Melonys act. Rules of Limited Liability Company establishes a duty of care among all members of a member-managed company. The case identifies member-management and Melony is liable to the company for her actions into the loss. Melonys action is also unethical because it leads to financial loss to her co-members (Cheeseman 664-
Wednesday, June 12, 2019
Faisal- Organisational Innovation And Change(OIC) - Essay ExampleAs a Supply Chain provider across many producers and countries, FSL provides the convenience of a one-stop shop for customers through a Total Value-Added Package from product design and development, through raw material and manufacturing plant sourcing, production planning and management, flavor assurance and export documentation to shipping consolidation. With an annual turnover of around ? 25 Million, FSL employs about 30 people worldwide. oer the course of 3 years, FSL has developed from a Malaysian export trader into a multinational trading company (Annual Report, 2009). 1.2 FSL MISSION The company has a visual sensation to be one of the world leaders in global trading. Its vision is To be the leader in the local and global markets by providing the best quality of products and services through strong emphasis on teamwork, collaboration, customer service, total commitment, trust, and mutual benefits (FSL Company Pr ofile, 2007) . The companys tune objectives are the following, with customer direction as its priority As a one-stop-shop service The company is comprised of small, dedicated teams of product specialists who focus on the needs of particular customers and organize for them. It provides the convenience of a one-stop shop from product development, through production management, to customs clearance and delivery when required. A coordinated global network FSL maintains a network of sourcing offices in 40 countries that work together to find the best sources for different components, fueling a constant process of adaptation. It has a policy of not owning any production facilities that keeps it conciliatory to search for quality-conscious, cost-effective producers who can consistently deliver against deadlines. Quick response FSL has been a pioneer in quick response manufacturing out of Asia since 2002. In order of battle to move even closer to their customers, FSL is currently concent rating on the extension of its sourcing network in markets like the China ,Mediterranean, Eastern Europe and Central and South America. favorable Responsibility FSL understands that its customers today face an increasingly discerning group of consumers who are not only looking for quality and value, but are also come to about how the goods are made. Compliance is a key element for all the steps of the companys supply chain. Through systematic inspection, audit and seller education we help customers enforce their high standards throughout the factory base. 1.3 Business Operation FSLs core business operation is trading. It has been trading ever since it has started its business. It trades its business by importing goods ordered by its customers especially Malaysians, who want the products that are manufactured in China, Thailand, Vietnam, etc. Most of FSL customers are importing their products from China and FSL has a very good network of contacts and connections among Chinas best m anufacturers and wholesalers. The company caters to both local and
Tuesday, June 11, 2019
Charter Schools - Essay ExampleThe different between call for schools and other public schools is that families exact them for their children because they have desired qualities and environment that must exhibit. Moreover, they operate on specific freedoms that are not in the other district public schools hence fashioning them favorable and lenient to the children Chance, L. M. S. A. A., & Lewis, W. (2013) these schools must demonstrate exquisite performance in matters relating to academics prowess, transparent management of finances and effective organizational stability. However, failure for a charter school to meet the organizational may lead to the closure of such(prenominal) school.Chance & Lewis (2013) Affirms that the underrepresented students in charter schools tend to succeed in education and adulterous activities compared to other students in the district schools. The essay seeks to illustrate why the underrepresented students perform better compared to others in the di strict schools. First, the general model of school provides an enabling melody where all people can learn and integrate the relevant skills learned in the realm of academics. CREDO study indicates success of these students emanates from school quality features such as teacher quality, lengths of day among other factors that concentrate on the non-low-income, non-disabled females in the charter schools (Mayr, 2008).The school exhibits controllable effects such as peer group, corporeal education that contribute heavily towards making an individual full member of the community. In other words, the schools have an adequate atmosphere that will provide an route for students to succeed by the end of the day. The students have hardworking spirit. Coupling the handwork and effort from students makes it possible for students to excel and eventually perform distinctively from other students in the society. The administration has set principles in terms creating and maintaining motivation a mongst students. Awards and
Monday, June 10, 2019
Target - Research Paper ExampleProduct whole tone plays an important role in determination of performance of companies that gain success in the long term (Foss & Knudsen, 2003). In this newsprint, the issue of maintaining good quality of products by Target Corporation has been discussed as a method of defeating the federations rivals (Ehmke, 2008). Customers prefer making purchases from Target stores since they get the appropriate products that they are searching for at the most reasonable prices (Nadia, 2001). The key strategies that grow led this come with up the success ladder are excellent tradeing and advertising strategies, high scratch value developed through strategic promotion of brand and intense product differentiation (Franco-Santos, et al., 2007). Being one of the top ranking companies in the US market, the company faces steep competition from other dominant firms in the market, such as, Wal-Mart, K-Mart and Costco. However, recently, the firm has been facing cer tain problems, such as high price of products than market standards and very close substitutes of its products. The main issue faced by Target Corporation is that whether it should follow the strategy of maintaining high quality of its products. The two contesting arenas that arise in this regard are high quality and high price. Target is considering high quality for its products while it is out wedged by competitors that flip low priced products. This paper is dedicated to the discussion of bringing solution to this problem. Different possible solutions to this problem would be discussed. These solutions are provided after considering the up-to-date short letter environment in which the company operates. Although, all the possible solutions are proposed on the basis of the some analysis of the company situation and overall industry condition, these refer to diverse aspects. However, in run to gain advantage over its nearest rivals, the company would have to identify the loop ho les in which it is directly lagging behind its competitors. In this case, the problem is that the company is facing price war. Competitors, such as Wal-Mart, K-Mart and Costco, which are known across the globe for their low price items, are gaining edge over Target Corporation, since the prices charged by Target are higher than the products that they offer. In this case the company might aim at reducing cost so as offer the products at lowered prices. However, price wars can be sustained only up to a certain limit, beyond which prices cannot be reduced for maintaining profitable business. Hence, it would have to take some other option for maintaining its competitive position in the industry. These possible solutions are discussed in the next section. Possible solutions to the problem In the current business world, companies are concerned about the gaining an extra edge over other market players. An important aspect that helps in assessing the performance of a peculiar(prenominal) company in the market is the extent to which customers would be attracted more towards a particular brand than other brands available in the market. It is imperative for every business to develop a base of loyal customers that would increase over time (Smith & Wright, 2004). Niche markets are growing rapidly in the modern world and they are increasing awareness of customers about product features and characteristics of products that they
Sunday, June 9, 2019
Wearable and performance applied science is surging to fashion perseverance - Essay ExampleProducts that are both wearing and smart gadgets are used to monitor the emotions and the activity of the user (Gaimster, 2012, 170). The second is the medical and health apprehension category. In this category, the devices require the approval of the FDA or an equivalent body, relative to the country in which the products are on sale. These devices assist in monitoring the users vital signs as well as the augmentation of the wearers senses (Editorialist, n.d., n.p.). The third is the military and industrial category. In this category, the performance and wearable applied science has the ability to transmit and go real-time data in both industrial and military environments. The fourth category is infotainment. Products under this category have the ability to transmit and receive real-time information for purposes of entertainment as well as espouse the enhancement of the wearers lifestyl e (SportTechie, n.d., n.p.).To find out more on the employment of technology in fashion, the researcher shall undertake a primary research through use of questionnaires. These questionnaires will contain structured questions that will alter the respondent to render their opinion on the effects of performance and wearable technology on different sectors in the economy, including the fashion industry. The respondents will be selected from the fashion industry to enable the researcher to acquire relevant information concerning the effects of technology in fashion. The questionnaire to be used for the primary research is attached to this document.Performance and wearable technology has contributed considerably to the development of fitness and wellness, especially through the devices that assist in monitoring an individuals physical development (Scaturro, 2008, 471). The demand for Performance and wearable technology products in this category comes from professional athletes, managers of corporate wellness programs as well as consumers of recreational fitness.
Saturday, June 8, 2019
Developing Information EssayI chose to set apart a very limited ca-ca sense of information on my front rascal because I wanted to attract the readers attention simply. I placed Oxfams logo on the front page, because I knew that as soon as people saw the logo they would know which charity my tract was for. I spread bug erupt my chart alone over single page because I thought the statistics needed a lot of space to be seen clearly. My text is clean well spread out. I dont want to define too much text on one page because I am aiming my leaflet at teenagers and if there is too much text on one page they will lose interest and not bother to read my leaflet.My page predilection was landscape because that is how leaflets are usually set out and I wanted my leaflet to be clean like any other leaflet about a charity. My paragraphs are short with a fairly large cheek because I was afraid that if I put too much text in a small font my target consultation would not bother to re ad it. My centre columns in the middle are 10mm apart. This will allow enough room when I fold my leaflet in half and it will make the text in the leaflet seem more logically spaced out, and not bunched up at the sides.I put in sub heading to make it easier for people to image what they are looking for in my leaflet. I also changed the colour of my subheadings to green so that it stands out from the body text and matches the colour of the Oxfam logo. All of my margins are 20mm. This is a good number because I know that the printer wont print any of my engagement if it is in a 15mm margin or less. I chose an image of a short poem about poverty. The late Mother Teresa wrote it and it really made me have in mind about the poor people in the world and what we can do to help them.Hopefully this image will have the uniform effect on my target audition. I chose an image of smiling children to show people what the poor children could look like with their help. I think that my leaflet w ill be desirable to my target audience because I have used only a small amount of text, but it gets straight to the point. So even if my target audience does have an incredibly short attention span, they should be able to read my leaflet with ease. The images are bright and eye catching. I was quite pleased with the emergence of my end leaflet but then thought of ways to change to so this is what I didLeaflet 2 I think my second leaflet is better than the first because I broke up the text a bit more to make it look more appealing and to make it easier to read. I also changed the font to a more attractive font. I enlarged the picture because I thought the picture had true meaning to what the charity was all about. I also enlarged the contact numbers and addresses on the back page because it will hopefully entice people to contact the charity and find out any extra information they need to know about donating or any queries they may have.I reduced the size of my statistics chart to make more room to move around my text. The chart is still easy to read. So it still fulfils its purpose in making the audience realise just how many people are living in poverty in our world today. I did not see the need to change the page orientation because my leaflet is supposed to be produced landscape. I didnt change the size of my centre columns or margins, because I thought that the present ones were suitable. I left my subheadings in the same green colour because I thought it was good idea to make them stand out.I left the image of the smiling children on the back page because I thought it was a pleasant way to end the leaflet. Leaflet 3 I decided that I didnt have enough information on my leaflet so I changed it again. I left my front page and back page because I thought they were suitable for my target audience. I entered some other paragraph of derived text from my paper-based resource. I added more subheadings so that my audience would know what they were reading about and to make the leaflet more consistent. I had to change the font size from 14 to 13 and I changed my text to normal instead of italic.I think this leaflet looks the most appealing and has the most information so I am going to choose it for my final idea. I also decided to change the front page of my leaflet because I thought it looked a little plain and might not entice my audience to pick it up and read it. I added another image to make the front assure look more interesting and to attract my audiences attention. Leaflet choice I am going to choose leaflet 3 because I think it has the most information and the most relevant size font and graphics. It is the most suited to my target audience and I think it looks the most appealing.
Friday, June 7, 2019
Analysis of Language, Rhetoric, and Politics in George Orwells 1984 Es feel outThis statement coming from the novel authorise Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell contains different messages depending on its context and rationality. The phrase war is peace can be define as a prescience or conclusion that peace is always a result of war. When there is war, there would be peace, which is non always true depends on the situation. The phrase immunity is slavery can be said that even if you argon free, there are influences, consequences, and contri neverthelessors that would continue the act of slavery and mass would still suffer from these cases. Because when we say freedom, there would be a form of governance and democracy but as long as authority exists, slavery would still become split of freedom. The phrase ignorance is strength can be true somewhattimes. If you are ignorant, you are more capable of acting without losing eachthing because you do not know something. Igno rance can be said as an escape to do everything without knowing anything just to be free. However, why do these phrases were stated if they could actu exclusivelyy say what is true and correct without any vague, ambiguous, and doublespeak words or languages.Use of languages can be vague and ambiguous depending on the person who use it, on the context he is relating with, the mess he is talking to and the meaning of those words itself. Most often, we use words that are light but critical in order to make our auditory modality or the person we are talking with will be slight burdened by the whole situation. We use fuzzy, confusing and light words to exemplify the meaning of what we need to say in accordance to their feelings. One of the practical or simplest examples is the words or languages in agate line.A corporation needs to reduce its employees imputable to company problems, but sort of than using dependable words they utilized technical words in order to make their emplo yees understand the situations (not the real reason) with no hard feelings or at least minimal objection coming from the employees. One company denied it was laying off 500 people. We dont characterize it as a layoff, said the corporate spin doctor.Were managing our staff resources. Sometimes you manage them up, and sometimes you manage them down. Firing workers is such big business that there are companies whose business is helping other companies fire workers by providing termination and outplacement consulting for corporations involved in reduction activities. But dont worry, if youre managed down, the Outplacement Consultant will help you with re-employment engineering. (Lutz, 1996) Because of these scenarios, people became clueless rather than being educated that are actually needed in every aspect of human life.In order to become productive, we need to be advance(a) by the fact that we need to understand things that are connected to our jobs, sociological interaction, or ev en personal maters. However, there are instances when these aspects of understanding and education could not be obtained because people behind those conflicts and problems are apprehended by their actions. Therefore, it is a form of stealing stealing our learning, knowledge, and privilege to recognize sensitive matters. That is why people having these issues are playing- proficient to acquire less refusal or conflicts in the coming(prenominal) but the consequences will be more problematic.Then, a question will rise towards these issues as it become more active during these times. The question will be what are the grounds of these people to state ambiguous, vague, and doublespeak that are more conflicting rather than honest thoughts? I guess, the reason why these things happened is that people are inherently liar in different forms and grounds as also based on the expression of Stephanie Ericsson entitled, The Ways We Lie. Why do they need to do these? It is because they need to c ompel people that there is no problem or everything is all right to bound of lying just to make things better.We lie. We all do. We minimize, we avoid confrontation, we spare peoples feelings, we conveniently forget, we keep secrets, we justify lying to the big- guy situations. (Ericsson, 1992) This statement shows that we all lie in different situations especially when it is needed or sometimes we used words that are less offensive to minimize the reaction of our audience or who we are talking with. In this case, as connected to the phrases above, use of doublespeak, vague, or ambiguous words are already part of our sociological interaction.We are doing this in order to make the people less objective to the whole situation. However, we cannot deny the fact that it will soon emerged into a conflicting issues that needs to be done in accordance to the law. Coming from the novel Nineteen Eighty-four by Orwell the statement robbing its citizens of their capacity for critical thought a nd reasonable, authentic self-expression is true not only from the past but also in the present and will still exists in the future. It is a fear we too, in our modern society, must share, or argue that his fear is exaggerated or even unfounded.Because of the cases that were explained above, people could not be able to express themselves because hey are becoming ignorant to what is true and right. I can say that it is better to recognize the truth despite of the failure that it may cause rather than doing some actions and hoping that there would be a brighter future but actually, there would be no solution to the problem is more miserable. Our political, social, economic, and even personal aspects of living are full of doublespeak words and languages. This is because we are not always open to reality and truth for we do not want to be rejected, obligated, and failure.Most often, we keep on hiding from our blankets to escape from the certainty of everything. That is why, in order to minimize these cases, people are already doing lesser projections to reduce absurd feelings that may cause tension and despair. However, does political aspect needs these cases to lard the burdens of the future. Logically, we know that political cases and aspects should be honest when it comes to its decision, preferences, and problems because its citizens are the primary affected from all of it.Nevertheless, this is not the situation today. There are some situations or maybe almost problematic situations that are hidden from the knowledge of the people for it will bring terrible conflict to the country. If the government could not control the situation and people knew about it, the president or the leader will explain but it will use doublespeak words or languages to make the people more roaring and to lessen their fright, but up to what extent? Things like these happened after the September 11, 2001 attack in New York.The president claim that the country is already safe from te rror attacks but he did not state any problem after the terror attack. He used doublespeak words to make its people less frightened from the whole situation but he did not say anything about the defenseless cases and problem within the white house that the terrorists already warned them but they did not pay attention to it. In this case, they did not want to be blamed so they made some segues and focused on the future having no further justifications of the past and the present.In our time, it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a party line. Orthodoxy, of whatever color, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestoes, discolour papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never f inds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade subprogram of speech.As a whole, Orwells novel is a revelation of the past situations that still exists today. Language is not a problem but the people who used the language based on their intentions and desire. If they choose not to be obligated and answerable to the problem, they will use doublespeak words, but if we think of it, who will be responsible for all of those problems if no one is honest about everything? Is it the future generation, or our ancestors?
Thursday, June 6, 2019
Intro Speech Self-Evaluation EssayThere was a bit of a confusion between us she explained to me that the assignment was that we each had to write just about each other and then switch papers and read it in class. This didnt sound right to me because the way I understood the assignment was that I had to write about her and she had to write about myself. This ended up being the case since I told the professor our little situation and agreed with my explanation of the assignment. I could of improved in having better communication with my partner and emailing the professor before the due date to help us with our doubts. I also didnt stand much time to practice my speech due to a busy weekend. I only had about 2 hours on Monday night to practice in front of an audience. This led me to actually be nervous and a bit anxious over this speech, especially with the disagreeing over the actual instructions of this assignment.On my paper, it is utter that my speech was only 52 seconds whi ch was very short compared to the 1.5 minutes that we had to achieve. For my next speech I now know that I have to slow blue when speaking which is linked to having practice time especially in front of people. This assignment unfeignedly made me feel a bit more favorable with public speaking which really made me happy because it made me realize this class wont be so hard if I really practice and follow the information in our textbook and lessons given by the professor.
Wednesday, June 5, 2019
Effect of Nuclear Radiation on the EnvironmentMohamad HammoudIntroductionBy the early 17th century, certain galvanic devices and power generators were being invented by certain scientists, who did not yet know that they were scratching the surface to a much more dangerous sort of energy, to be disc overed by scientist Einstein a hardly a(prenominal) centuries later. This form of energy to be produced through a substance named Uranium was to be introduced as a more efficient power source. However, the process with which this energy was created was to be exploited, which would result in what is known today as The Weapons of Mass Destruction.The use of such form of powerful energy for certain military uses can result in horrific results. A quick study shows that even a minor cont oddity would quickly decline the world climate and environment, inflicting harm that could last for decades. Richard Turco, a scientist at the UCLA said that exploding only between 30 and 70 projectiles ju st 0.03% of the inviolate terminal would cause enough pollution to create climatic disasters unseen in the first place in human history. He excessively said the effects would be much greater than what were talking about withglobal warming and anything thats happened in history with regards volcanic eruptions. Summarily, it can alter and damage not only the glory, but also all forms of life such as humans, animals, and plants. (Jha)The Invention of Nuclear Power and MissilesProblems Encountered During CreationThe invention mainly started to take place during midst 1939, just before the inauguration of the second Great War. It all commenced when Albert Einstein and several other scientists wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, informing him of the Nazis efforts to cleanse and exploit Uranium-235, which could be utilise to build a weapon of mass destruction. It was at that moment that FDR decided to begin The Manhattan Project, which was simply to produce a viable nuclear b omb calorimeter. However, thither were many complicated issues to be faced. The most significant of these issues was the inability to extract enriched uranium to maintain a series of reactions. Back then, uranium-235 was extremely difficult to extract, and the ratio of extracted ore to uranium metal was as low as 5001. Furthermore, over 99% of the refined metal from the ore was uranium-238, which was rendered useless for the invention of an atomic bomb. The two antithetic types of isotopes were nearly identical in their chemical makeup, and only possibly separated by mechanical means.Solution of the Problem and Testing of the new Invention before long thereafter, a massive enrichment lab was erected at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Harold Urey and his colleagues came up with an extraction system, which worked on the principles of gas diffusion, while Ernest Lawrence baffle into action a process which snarled magnetic force to separate the two isotopes. A gas centrifuge was then used to separate the lighter uranium-235 from the heavier uranium-238. After this separation, all that was needed was for the scientists to put the concept of atomic fission (which involves splitting the atom) to the test. Overall, approximately two billion dollars were invested into The Manhattan Project. Throughout the entire path, it was a scientist by the name of Robert Oppenheimer who oversaw the progress of the campaign from beginning to end. Finally, the day of testing arrived. It was on July 16, 1945 where it would be found out if the entire project was just a complete dud, or if it would put an end to the massacre. Upon placing the missile in the sea, a massive white gust took place. The light turned red as the power of the volley shot upwards at 360 feet per second. The explosion resembled the shape of a mushroom. The Manhattan Project had been a success. (Bellis)Effect of Nuclear Radiation on HumansImmediate (Short Term) EffectsSurvivors of such a devastating blast will be kill ed within a few days due to radioactive fall-out. The severity of the fall-out will be determined by whether the nuclear bomb explodes in mid-air, or upon impact with the ground. The first of these will leave a larger blast impact. The latter, however, will throw much higher quantities of radioactive junk into the surrounding atmosphere. The area included in this fall-out is strictly dependent upon the wind speed and its direction. The heavier the particle of radioactive debris, the higher the chance it drops in close vicinity. even-textured and rather smaller particles, however, are thrown over longer distances before their fall. Some of these particles are so fine that they can combine with vaporized wet and fall as radioactive rain 1700 miles from the original blast. Anyone who is in the range of this radioactivity will suffer from hair loss, internal bleeding, fever, bleeding from the gums, and terminal coma. much(prenominal) of these have no effective medicine and are fatal . (Carnegie)Long Term EffectsGenetic studies on the children of nuclear bomb survivors who were exposed to the atmosphere afterwards was conducted by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation ever since 1948. The analysis of past studies shows signs of abnormal pregnancy outcomes deformation, miscarriage and early child death. Other effects include chromosome aberrations. Chromosome aberrations can be defined as an extra, irregular, or missing portion of a certain chromosomal DNA. This alteration of chromosomes can cause several inborn diseases due to aneuploidy. An example of such a human disease is Down syndrome, where the affected have lead copies of chromosome 21 instead of a natural two. (Nakamura)Effect of Nuclear Bombs on the Climate and AtmosphereGeneral Effects on the ClimateAlthough there has been a two-thirds decrease in the worlds nuclear arsenal since 1987, scientific research clarifies that the results of even a minor nuclear w ar can end human history and leave mother earth inhabitable. Studies conducted at several U.S universities predict that the explosion of a tiny amount of the global nuclear storage within large metropolitan areas would cause catastrophic disruptions in the Earths climate and massive destruction of out protective ozone layer. Studies conclude that a small or rather regional conflict between two nations such as India and Pakistan would disrupt the climate for decades to come.DetailsIn a small-scale war, denotation of about 100 Hiroshima-sized bombs under half a percent of the worlds arsenal- would send over five million tons of pornography and smoke over cloud-level. This could prevent almost 10% of the sunlight from reaching the northern hemisphere this smoke and soot can remain in the atmosphere for a couple of decades. This would cause average surface temperatures beneath this layer to become lower than it has ever been in the last 1000 years. However, if a big war event was to take place, and the United States and U.S.S.R ere to launch their full arsenal, over 150 million tons of smoke would rise above cloud-level. This would block over 75% of sunlight from reaching the northern hemisphere, and 30% of sunlight from reaching the southern hemisphere. Under such extreme and severe conditions, it only requires a few days for the temperatures to drop below freezing levels in agricultural areas. Average surface temperatures would become colder than it has ever been in the past 18,000 years which coincides with the peak of the forward ice age. Rainfall would decrease by 90%, growing seasons would be completely eliminated, and the majority of the human and animal populations would die of starvation.
Tuesday, June 4, 2019
cosmopolitanism and Relativism in merciful RightsOne of the around pertinent issues of the past twenty years has been the mesh between two contrary ideologies of gentle rights on a national scale, oecumenicism, and heathenish relativism. Universalism holds that more primitive tillages will eventually evolve to aim the comparable system of law and rights as westward polishs. Cultural relativists hold an opposite, but similarly rigid viewpoint, that a traditional culture is unchangeable. Much like the enquiry whether a tolerant society should tolerate intolerance, the argumentation between universalism and cultural relativism is more convoluted than it appears.In universalism, an individual is a social unit, possessing inalienable rights, and determined by the pursuit of self interest. In the cultural relativist model, a community is the basic social unit. Concepts such as individualism, let offion of choice, and tintity argon absent. It is recognized that the commu nity always comes first. This doctrine has been exploited by more states, which decry any impositions of occidental rights as cultural imperialism. These states ignore that they have adopted the western nation state, and the goal of modernization and economic prosperity. Cultural relativism is in itself a very arbitrary image, cultures are rarely unified in their viewpoints on different issues, it is always those who hold the microph unitary that do not polish off (http//www.aasianst.org/Viewpoints/Nathan.htm).This converse begs the school principal that in precisely what way are world rights western. And even if they were Western in 1948, are they still Western today?Cultural relativism continues to problematize the Universal Declaration of gentleman Rights since it was adopted in 1948 . In fact, the problem of what universality capacity mean in a multicultural world haunted the United Nations merciful Rights project from the beginning. As soon as news of the project b ecame known, the American Anthropological Association, through the groups executive board, warned the humane Rights Commission through a letter against drafting a statement of rights only in terms of the set prevalent in the countries of Western Europe and America. However, while the anthropologists working from within a framework of cultural relativism issued a warning, the UNESCO Committee on the The Theoretical Bases of Human Rights offered hope by pointing out that even people who contactm to be far apart in theory can agree that certain things are so terrible in expend that no one will publicly approve them and that certain things are so good in practice that no one will publicly oppose them.Whenever one group denies rights to another group within a culture, it is usually for their own benefit. Therefore kind rights cannot be truly universal unless they are not bound to cultural decisions that are often not make unanimously, and thus cannot re get either individual that t hese rights apply to.Even though cultural relativism has great problems and a potential for abuse, universalism in its current state is not the ideal solution. Universalism is used by many Western states to negate the validity of more traditional systems of law. For example, if a tribe in Africa is ruled by a chieftain and advised by the cardinal most senior villagers, is this system any less representative than the more liberal societies of the West? Is it possible to impose a universal system of kind rights if the effects of social change stemming from modernization are not understood or worse yet, ignored? In non-Western societies, industrialization, capitalism, and democracy might not have been the eventual outcome of the play of cultural evolution. These ideologies have been shaped and created by Western imperialism, the slave trade, colonialism, modernization, and consumerism.Todays world shows signs of positive progress towards the universal system of benevolent rights. T he declaration of human rights occurred immediately after the atrocities committed during WWII. The globalization of human rights began when the world was awakened to the crimes committed under one government (Hitler), and the need for a more universal system of accountability and responsibility. Through a forum such as the United Nations, cultural differences are better able to be resolved, thereby paving the way for universalism while at the same time recognizing and compromising on the needs of certain cultures. The recent adoption of the International unlawful court in June 1998 is an important step in enforcing and promoting the values agreed upon by the member nations. As the world becomes a smaller place with the sexual climax of globalization, universalism makes more sense as a philosophy of human rights. In a world where many people might not be governed by national borders, having fundamental human rights instead of ones bound to certain cultures provides the best soluti on.The question of Westernness versus the universality of human rights remained a live issue throughout the process that led to the framing of the UDHR.In the 1950s the UDHR came under criticism as being Western at the hands of the newly independent states of Asia and Africa. And in the commove of the Cold War, its perceived emphasis on policy-making and civil rights also allowed the countries of the Soviet Bloc to skewer it as such, with the Third World whole toneing on in wonder if the white mans burden was being explouted once again to secure the white mans gain.In 1996, Prime Minister Mohammad Mahathir of Singapore famously say Asian values are universal values. European values are European values.(p. xi) Kishore Madhubani writes that any Asian thinker who challenged the prevailing Western ideas in coetaneous social and political theory must be advocating the superiority of Asian values. Actually, the only point that most Asians were trying to make was that Asian values wer e not inferior. They were trying to say that there was a need for a level playing field in the new intellectual debate of the 1990s. With the advantage of diachronic hindsight, we can now look at those years and see that Asians were not marching out in that period to proselytize to the West, They are only reacting to Western proselytization.The capital of Massachusetts Sunday Globe on 29th April 2001 carried a sp con entitled the BIG IDEA followed by the title Are Human Rights Universal? Or is the West imposing its philosophy on the Rest of the World. It also carried two pieces elaborating divergent perspectives, one by Makau Mutua and the other by John Shattuck, Boston Sunday Globe, 29 April 2001, p. D8. Perhaps it is the intuition of Makau Mutua on this point which finds fuller expression in the following remarks byUpendra Baxi The more human rights are hailed as the patrimony of the West, the greated is the inclination in most Euroamerican societies towards world hegemony. Als o keener, as a result, is the intergovernmental desire in some non-Euroamerican societies to reject the cardinal aspiration affirming partake worth of all human beings. not merely repressive regimes but also progressive intellectuals in these societies remain ambivalent towards contemporary human enunciations. And (as Chapter 6 illustrates) progressive Eurocentrism inclines us all towards a postmodernist crtitique of notions of human rights. Authentic intercultural, or even inter-faith, dialogue remains a casualty of warped approaches to histories of human rights ideas and practices.(p. vi of The Future of Human Rights) The principal msg of this work is that the originary authors of human rights are people in struggle and communities of resistance, which standard scholarship demotes to a minor status Once claims to authorship stand thus pluralized, it follows simply that human rights are not the gifts of the West to the Rest the dominant discourse is diversionary when it locates the origins of human rights in the Euroamerican tradition and experience and when it pursues endless debates over universality and relativism of human rights.(p. xiv) There is no unified Asian view in human rights and exemption of the press. These are Western concepts. Asians are obliged to react to them An understanding of the Asian reactions is clouded by the fact that many Asians feel obliged to pay at least lip service to Western values.The universalist theory of Human Rights is indeed largely based on Western philosophy and the value it places on the individual. Product of Greek philosophy, Christianity and the Enlightenment thinkers, the universalist approach to Human Rights contends that one can use nature, God, or reason to identify basic rights, inherent to every human, which pre-exist society. Jack Donnelly best summarizes the contemporary doctrine of the universalist approach by putting forward the following conclusions1. All humans have rights by virtue of their humanit y2. A persons rights cannot be conditioned by gender or national or ethnic origin3. Human Rights exist universally as the highest moral rights, so no rights can be subordinated to another person (e.g. a husband) or an institution (e.g. the state)By contrast, cultural relativism is based on the idea that there are no objective standards by which others can be judged. The debate between universalism and relativism is as old as the history of philosophy itself and its watchword of truth. Relativism was introduced by, among others, the sophist Protagoras. He rejected objective truth by saying in so many words, later quoted by PlatoThe way things appear to me, in that way they exist for me and the way things appear to you, in that way they exist for you.It is a perfect reflection of the European Enlightenment Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau are its spiritual creative activity fathers. Indeed the Covenant insists on negative rights, those that limit the role of government and p revent its intrusion in ones life, concealment, and freedom of speech, religion, opinion and association. Political liberalism thus outlined has been the force underlying the US Constitution and the US Bill of Rights, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and the French Constitution. It is also the emphasis of the International Human Rights legislating and thus legitimizes the efforts by the West to spread-some say impose-Western models of democracy.This is a first level of contention brought forward by cultural relativism proponents. To limit the role of government and its discussion of nationals is an interference with domestic affairs and a violation of state sovereignty, which for most of them is newly acquired and still fragile. The debate in very simple terms could read as follows As soon as we (usually Third World countries) are granted independence and sovereignty, you (the West) introduce Human Rights and your style of government as a limit or as a condi tion.Indeed, the old mission civilisatrice is now replaced by the spread of multiparty democracy. Christianization, civilization, democratization the rhetoric has changed, the interference has not. Furthermore, there is still the underlying concept that Western culture, because it legitimizes itself behind its pretension to universality, also positions itself as superior to non-western culture. Universalism becomes Westernization.A question remains, if it is westernization, then westernization for what purpose? Once again we need to look back at the history of political liberalism and its expression in the modern Human Rights doctrine. Locke cannot be separated from Adam Smith. Central to a western translation of fundamental freedoms is the right to property. Economic liberalism and political liberalism are brothers and in Western philosophy they are Siamese twins. The freedom to vote is often translated in the freedom to consume and/or the freedom to invest. It is very important t hat one billion Chinese be free to vote and express their opinion as coarse as they also choose to buy Motorolas and Marlboros.The link between Western-defined Human Rights and globalization of the economies explains the virulence of the West on the issues of fundamental freedoms. In other terms, critics agree that the universalist discourse barely hides a Western attempt to give a moral legitimization to an economic agenda. The ultimate contradiction lies in the fact that political liberalism has supported the same economic liberalism that has legitimized, for example, the Structural Adjustment Programs of the IMF. The SAPs in turn have been the catalyst for the curtailment of political freedoms and human rights in many growth countries.That the universal Human Rights discourse can disguise a hidden agenda is certainly undeniable. But does this mean by contrast that the cultural relativist discourse is agenda-free? Lets place it under scrutiny.The first level of criticism of the use of cultural relativism as an exception to universal norms, lies in the fact that bringing forward culture at a given time is to fundamentally ignore the dynamic and fluid nature of culture. Cultural relativism adopts a static definition of culture a snapshot of a group of people and their system of meaning at a given time with the underlying assumption that they will not change. It introduces in the paradigm an element of determinism that has no factual or historical relevance. Static definitions of culture also lead to such statement as traditional communicable ethnic hatred, which explain conflict in terms of culture, obliterating in the process all other determining parameters such as political economy.However, cultural relativisms most fundamental weakness in the work towards Human Rights lies in the conflict of interest between the people who articulate the argument and those they represent. More often than not, cultural relativism is claimed by repressive regimes whose pr actices have nothing to do with local or indigenous cultures but more with their own self-preservation.4 Cultural policymakers are those who can let loose for the group and articulate the group values to the outside world. Such spokesmen are likely to only stress the elements insuring their position. This is especially important in multi-ethnic or multi-cultural states where not only would it be difficult to establish a national identity based on cultural values but also where one group dominates the others at best, blatantly discriminates at worst. Would someone attempt to define what is the culture in Bosnia-Herzegovina? Or in Rwanda? Culture is a construct some(prenominal) more so than a reality and people can always find different levels of allegiance. Indeed, one critique of cultural relativism is that it leads to fragmentation. Cultural relativism as a tool is a legitimization of a behavior designed to preserve a structure of powers.In a study on Iranian women, Karen Miller i llustrates that in rejecting the aspirational character if universalism, relativism merely perpetuates traditional practice. Miller insists notably on the fact that generally women have not taken a large part in determining the culture because traditionally, male activities have set the standards. In fact, violence against women seems to be common in many cultures.5IV. Reconcilability of the Two Approaches.Neither universalism nor cultural relativism is exempt of political manipulations. Does that mean that neither view carries some validity? Furthermore, if they each carry some validity, are they mutually exclusive?To answer the first question by the affirmative-neither is valid, Human Rights paradigms are tools, therefore they do not have intrinsic values-would be reducing critical thinking to syllogism. Letas more importantly see if both notions can and should be reconciled in theory and in practice. That there exist profound differences of perceptions among cultures or groups of people according to their history, language, and economic slew might be true. Does that mean that there exist among them no common points? Not necessarily. It is in truth quite remarkable to do a comparative textual analysis between Confucius and Locke and to see how both at different times, insist on the centrality of the concept of Humanity in defining individuals.64 Donnelly, Jack.5 Miller, K. Human Rights of Women in Iran the Universalist Approach and the Relativist Response. http//www.law.emory.edu/EILR/volumes/win96/miller.html6 Nicoll, N. Confucianism and Human Rights, unpublished paper.Secondly, disagreeing with the content of what is now presented as universal does not have to mean that there are no values or norms universally agreed upon. Western values may not be universal but it does not mean that universal values do not exist.This leads us to a level of conciliation that would embody a true cross-cultural search of what can be universally agreed upon. Universal standa rds should be the goals while cultural legitimacy would offer a method. This would be made that much more relevant if those defining the culture were not those in power. The search of commonalties would (in theory) bypass the structures of power. It could forge a necessary dialectic between external attempts to build a universal system and the congenital assistance of various civil societies.V. The Obstacle of LawIt is precisely at this juncture that we see how the debate between universalism and relativism has contributed to perpetuate a situation that has actually hindered, more than benefited, the cause of Human Rights. The defense of Human Rights has been presented as a legal endeavor among state actors. The debate is essentially a legal debate when texts of external law are being drafted. Discussions then follow on what understanding to give to the term degrading treatment or what reservations can a domestic legislation make in the name of religion, culture or constitution (in the case of the US).The debate concentrates on the content of the legislation or its version or application in domestic law, never on the means itself the fact that there is an over reliance on law to address Human Rights issues. Actually if there is a western influence, it is to be found in that domain. Law as an absolute value is permeating the international realm. In international law nation-states are both creators and parties. In Human Rights, like in any other domain, states are not going to create universal or local structures that bypass their level of control. The western idea that a good litigation can solve all problems is also present in Human Rights doctrine. The fact is that the Human Rights legislation, which by nature of the international system lacks serious mechanism of enforcement, has acted as a smokescreen and has often diverted efforts and resources from other venues. triumph is claimed when a given country finally adopts an international treaty or adequately adapts its domestic law, i.e. China signs the ICCPR or Kenya outlaws female circumcision. Efforts can then stop or more realistically, MFN status can be renewed.The issue of course is that most people whose rights are violated do not have equal access to the law-especially true for women in many countries. What difference would a change in the legislation make when you cannot drive or go to an urban center, or for that matter, even read?In addition, the nature itself of the existing legislation on Human Rights has indeed under western influence, favored such rights as privacy and property. The legislation has erected a wall between the public theatre and the private sphere to better protect those rights. This has been ultimately catastrophic for womens rights for most violations of women happen in the private sphere. This is really a domain where one can witness how both theories, universalism and relativism, have had a negative impact by creating a replicate standard. Men readil y accepting western norms of respect for privacy and property and women made to bare the brunt of cultural authenticity within a private sphere made untouchable by virtue of respect for fundamental freedoms.ConclusionThe debate between universalism and relativism should be a non-issue. Universal goals and cultural sensitivities can be reconciled in the establishment of realistic strategies. However the debate in its present form contributes to divert attention from more important issues. Is International Law, made by states, the right venue to improve human rights? The effective protection of Human Rights requires a transformation not only of government and laws but of the non-state institutions and practices that the present Human Rights doctrine-universal or relative-does not touch.
Monday, June 3, 2019
Positivism Interpretivism And Pragmatism Psychology EssayHussey Hussey say that methodology makes reference to the whole set out considered, as well as to the theoretical al-Qaeda from which the researcher comes, and that method is the various steerings by which information is collected and analysed.In this chapter, the res for each oneer has presented a brief review of the different research philosophies favourableness, interpretivism, and realism (Fisher, 2007), the philosophy that has espouse for the current research, the different research approaches soft, quantitative and mixed-method and the approach adopted for the research. The other parts consist of the different types of research throw exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, and the research design adopted, the qualitative and quantitative phases consisting of sampling, entropy collection and data outline, questionnaire design, validity and reliability, data analysis. The last part consists of the ethical issues and a conclusion.3.2 Research philosophyAs menti iodind in the introduction, there be three main types of research philosophies, namely, positivism, interpretivism, and pragmatism (realism).3.2.1 PositivismThe term positivism was found by Comte in the nineteenth century and he related it to the force of science and of systematic thinking to understand and control the world (Fisher, 2007). The aim of positivism is to produce general rules to forecast bearing with a minimum margin of uncertainty. However, there are problems with this philosophy, one of which is that it can only predict amount behavior of individuals in a group and not the behavior of each individual (Fisher, 2007). Nonetheless, research based on a positivist philosophy tends to be based on deductive theorising, where a number of propositions are generated for examening, with empirical verification then sought (Babbie, 2005). Considerable data are often required as a positivist education would favour the utilise of quantitative methods to analyse full-size-scale phenomena (Travers, 2001). Inherent in this boilers suit approach to research is the view that it is possible to measure social behaviour independent of place setting and that social phenomena are things that can be viewed objectively (Hughes Sharrock, 1997).InterpretivismThis philosophy is on the other extreme of that of positivism. Researchers who adopt this philosophy consider reality as soci all toldy constructed, that is, their meaning of reality is affected by their value and their way to see the world other peoples meaning the compromises and agreements that come out of the negotiations among the first ii (Fisher, 2007). Interpretive research has been classified as gnostic because it does not agree to the fact that there is the existence of a systematic analysis of any position changeject instead, it gives magnificence to multiplicity, relativity and complexity (Fisher, 2007).It is an attempt to understand the proce sses by which we gain knowledge and so it has affinity with the original gnostic search for ones unfeigned self. A characteristic of interpretive research is that one cannot understand how others may make sense of things unless one has a deep knowledge of ones personal values and thinking processes, which in research terms the knowledge is known as reflexivity (Fisher, 2007).RealismRealist research is an approach that resembles to a large close that of positivism but put one overs into consideration, and comes to terms with, the subjective record of research and the paramount function of values in it (Fisher, 2007). Realism still aims to be scientific but makes less claims to knowledge that perfectly mirrors the objects of study. Researchers with this stance recognise that things such as strategy and job satisfaction cannot be measured and studied in the same way as can chemical and physical processes. However, they do believe that a worthwhile attempt can be made to fix these subjects and treat them as if they are independent variables.3.2.2 Research philosophy adoptedThe correct choice and understanding of philosophical orientation is of extreme importance to allow the selection of the close convenient methodology to facilitate the gathering of the relevant data (Remenyi et al, 1998 Blaxter et al, 2004), especially as poor understanding of philosophical issues can seriously lower the whole step of the research (Easterby-Smith, 2006).Having studied the different philosophical approaches and considered the nature of the current research, the researcher has decided an overall view of a scholars attitude and perception was necessary so as to get a better understanding of students views. This type of research required the participation of a large population sample, which in turn created large amounts of numerical and statistical data and information, which needed to be quantifiably analysed. When all these factors were taken into account, realism was the most appropriate philosophical approach to cause the research questions and twin the objectives of the current research.3.3 Research approach3.3.1 numerical approachQuantitative methods are most often associated with the positivist epistemology, and they consist of counting and measurement of events and statistical analysis of a body of numerical data (Mc Laren, 2012). An important feature of the quantitative method is the collection of numerical data (Jack Clarke, 1998) which can ultimately be subjected to statistical procedures (Carter 2000a).3.3.2 Qualitative approachQualitative research consists of the study of events in their natural settings, with a view to qualification sense of, or interpreting, events of how people interpret (Mc Laren, 2012). Normally, in the empirical type of approach the responsibility is on researchers to direct and control methods to attain objectivity, thus making sure that their findings are valid as their intentions and emotions would not be see n as a barrier with data collection and analysis (Mc Laren, 2012).Mixed method approachMixed methods embrace a method and philosophy that combines the insights provided by qualitative and quantitative methods into a workable solution. Mixed methods research makes full use of the positive parts of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies by combining approaches in a single research study to enhance the scope of understanding (Johnson, Onwuegbuzie, and Turner 2007).3.3.2 Research approach adoptedAs mentioned by Bryman (2007), a combination of qualitative and quantitative results would lead to a better understanding of the data and help in a better way to set to the research objectives. As the education sector research field keeps on changing, so too does its methods and therefore the researcher has utilize the mixed method approach for the current research.3.4 Research design3.4.1 There are three main types of research design, namely, exploratory, descriptive and causal.Explo ratory designThis design places a lot of vehemence on gaining ideas and insights. An exploratory study intends to explore what is happening to seek new insights to ask questions and to assess the phenomena in a new light (Robson, 2002, p59). It is important primarily when there is very little information known about the phenomenon. In a type of mixed-method design, the qualitative data are gathered first and a quantitative phase follows. The purpose of this kind of study is typically to use the initial, qualitative phase with a few individuals to identify themes, ideas, perspectives, and beliefs that can then be used to design the larger-scale, quantitative part of the study. Often, this kind of design is used to develop a see. By employ a qualitative component in the beginning, researchers are able to use the language and emphasis on different topics of the subjects in the wording of items for the vista.Doing so increases the validity of the scores that result because they will be well matched with how the subjects, rather than the researchers, think about, conceptualize, and respond to the phenomenon being studied.Explanatory designExplanatory study aims to find out the causal births between variables (Saunders et al., 2007). In an explanatory design, which may be the most common type, quantitative data are collected first and, depending on the results, qualitative data are gathered irregular to elucidate, elaborate on, or explain the quantitative findings. Typically, the main thrust of the study is quantitative, and the qualitative results are secondary. For example, this kind of design could be used to study schoolroom assessment and grading. A large sample of teachers could be surveyed to determine the extent to which they use different factors in classroom assessment and grading this would provide a general overview of the teachers practices. In a second phase, teachers could be selected who represent extremely high or low scores on the factors in the survey. These teachers could then be interviewed using a qualitative method to determine why they used certain practices. Thus, the qualitative phase would be used to augment the statistical data and thus explain the practices.Descriptive designDescriptive study seeks to provide a clear picture about the phenomenon as it already occurs (Hedrick et al., 1993). Research using a descriptive design simply provides a summary of an existing phenomenon by using numbers to characterize individuals or a group where it assesses the nature of existing conditions (McMillan Schumacher, 1997). The purpose of most descriptive research is limited to characterizing something as it is.3.4.2 Research design adoptedSince a mixed method approach has been used for this research, a mixture of both exploratory and explanatory designs was used.3.5 Qualitative phaseData to answer some questions was collected by using a qualitative approach. This allowed the researcher to get the opinion of cut down VI students about what they thought of orphic tuitions at S.C take aim (Appendix 2).3.5.1 SamplingFor this part of the study, a reasonable and recyclable sample of four schools was chosen as mentioned by Mcmillan and Schumacher (1997) who made the argument that a good sample was one where the participants were readily accessible. The four schools were chosen with one in each educational zone, where 10 students were selected to ensure adequate information (Marshall, 1998). Due to the fact that I have used steering groups to collect data, 10 students were a reasonable sample per school.3.5.2 Data collectionFocus groupsFor the qualitative part of the study, data was collected from Lower VI students of the four selected schools by revolve about group interviews. The focus groups for the students had been chosen since they took less time and more information was collected from different participants at the same time (Daymon Holloway, 2002). Another advantage of focus groups was that the information obtained from the participants was of good pure tone since the individuals in the group got ideas from others (McMillan Schumacher, 1997). The interview of each focus group was at least one hour and thirty minutes. A tape recorder was used to collect data which was later transcribed.3.5.3 Data analysisThe data which had been recorded in a tape was transcribed and analysed.3.6 Quantitative phaseThe information collected from the qualitative interviews in Phase 1 was used in the education of a comprehensive and valid questionnaire for quantifying the views of students on reclusive tuitions. The items derived from the qualitative interview transcripts was administered to a large sample of students, including boys and girls and factor analyzed to uncover the internal structure of the views of the students on nonpublic tuitions.3.6.1 SamplingIn this study, a mixture of purposeful and convenient sampling was used (McMillan Schumacher, 1997). In order to determine the sample size, confidence interval approach was used which is based on the building up of confidence intervals around the sample means by making use of the standard error formula (Malhotra Dash, 2007). By making use of the formula for determining the sample size for a population of 13902 students having taken part at the S.C examinations 2012, the researcher got a value of 384. As a result, a total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to students of Lower VI, both from State and P.S.S.A colleges in all regions of Mauritius. The questionnaires were distributed equally among boys and girls to avoid bias in the collection of data.3.6.2 Data collectionA letter was sent to each school to explain the purpose of the study and for permission to distribute the questionnaires to Lower VI students (Appendix 1). The questionnaire was handed personally to the selected students, the aims of the survey were explained and the make full questionnaires were collected after 2 days.3.6.3 Questionnai re designMost of the time, questionnaires contain two types of questions open ended or disagreeable(a) (Sinnott, 2008).With open-ended questions the researcher gives the opportunity to the answerer as to how they write their answer making way to a more in-depth answer. However they are more difficult to classify into groups to facilitate analysis. A closed question will restrain the answer that may be given and usually asks the respondent to choose among a variety of possibilities given by the researcher.However, closed questions help the respondent to complete the questionnaire quickly and they also help the researcher to classify the information and analyse the data with great ease (Sekaran, 1992 McNeil et al, 2005). For this research, a survey questionnaire was designed for the collection of data which contains multiple options of Likert scaling from 0 to 4 for the variety of choice for the respondent (Appendix 3). The questionnaire consisted of six sections, with section A con sisting of two questions on general information about secret tuitions (number of hours students took private tuitions per week, number of subjects in which the students took private tuitions), section B consisting of nineteen questions on positive impacts of private tuitions at S.C level from the students stoppage of view, section C consisting of ten questions on the negative impacts of private tuitions at S.C level from the students point of view, section D consisting of nine questions on the extent to which private tuitions at S.C level are replacing mainstream schooling from students point of view,section E consisting of two questions with respect to improvement of academic performance from the students point of view and the last section consisting of six questions concerning the demographic profile of the student.3.6.4 Data analysisThe data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The answer for each question provided by the student was fed into SPSS version 20. The gender of students, type of school, the region in which the student lives, the attempt at S.C examination 2012, the socioeconomic status of the student, the number of hours during which the student took private tuitions per week, the highest educational attainment of the students parents were analysed by making use of pie charts and bar charts. For the sections B, C and D, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was do in order to group the answers obtained for the different questions into some main factors, with the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test being performed to verify whether EFA could be done. The different factors were found out by making use of the eigenvalue in SPSS version 20 which was set at a value of greater than 1. The factor loading of each variable forming part of each factor was also calculated by making use of the rotated matrix table in SPSS version 20. Some questions which were in the different sections had to be deleted due to cross loadi ng, low loading factor, or theoritically the grouping of the question with others did not make sense. Secondly, hypotheses and sub-hypotheses were made for each research objective and each sub hypothesis was subjected to chi square testing where a crosstab was generated and the value of 2 and the p value were analysed, together with the phi value to see the degree of association, if ever.Objective 1 To find out the positive impacts of private tuitions on the overall development of the student at S.C level.H0 There is no relationship between private tuitions and the overall development of the student at S.C level.H1 There is a relationship between private tuitions and the overall development of the student at S.C level.In order to test for the above hypothesis, the following sub-hypotheses were tested for the different factors found by EFA.Sub-hypothesesFactor 1 Economic/ passage benefitsH0 There is no relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and economic/career benefits fo r the student in the future.H1 There is a relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and economic/career benefits for the student in the future.Factor 2 Better academic performance and more effortsH0 There is no relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and better academic performance/more efforts.H1 There is a relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and better academic performance/more efforts.Factor 3 Increased level of socialisation with friendsHo There is no relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and increased level of socialisation of the student.H1 There is a relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and increased level of socialisation of the student.Factor 4 Better quality of teaching in private tuitionsH0 There is no relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and better quality of teaching.H1 There is a relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and better quality of teaching.Objective 2 To find out the negati ve impacts of private tuitions on the overall development of the student at S.C level.H0 There is no relationship between private tuitions and the overall development of the student at S.C level.H1 There is a relationship between private tuitions and the overall development of the student at S.C level.In order to test for the above hypothesis, the following sub-hypotheses were tested.Sub-hypothesesFactor 1 Negative psychological modify students concerning private tuitionsH0 There is no relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and the negative psychological factors affecting the student concerning private tuitions.H1 There is a relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and the negative psychological factors affecting the student concerning private tuitions.Factor 2 Deterioration of health of the student who takes private tuitionsH0 There is no relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and deterioration of the health of the student.H1 There is a relationsh ip between private tuitions at S.C level and deterioration of the health of the student.Factor 3 Lack of family and leisure time faced by student who takes private tuitionsH0 There is no relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and lack of family and leisure time by the student.H1 There is a relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and lack of family and leisure time by the student.Objective 3 To find out to what extent private tuitions are replacing mainstream schooling.Factor 1 Higher level of importance of private tuitions as compared to mainstream schoolingH0 There is no relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and their level of importance from the students point of viewH1 There is a relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and their level of importance from the students point of viewFactor 2 More care and attention from private tutors than teachers at schoolH0 There is no relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and students ge tting more care and attention from private tutors.H1 There is a relationship between private tuitions at S.C level and students getting more care and attention from private tutorsFinally, a multi regression analysis was carried out to investigate the whether there was a linear relationship between academic performance at S.C level, measured by the grade point average (G.P.A), and socioeconomic status of parents, intensity of private tuitions per week, region in which the student lived, and highest educational attainment of parents.The grade point average is calculated by dividing the aggregate that the student obtained at S.C examinations 2012 by six since the aggregate is calculated for the 6 best grades. The grade point average has a range of 1.00 to 9.00. The lower the grade point average, the better is the academic performance of the student.3.6.5 Validity and reliabilityIn this research, a mixed method approach was adopted which was an efficient way to collect data for specific variables of interest (Collis and Hussey, 2003). The survey questionnaire was developed to get data from students of Lower VI. Contact addresses and numbers were given in covering letter if participants encountered any problem (Appendix 1). It was assured that data would be confidential that can reduce the subject bias. Since the questionnaire was designed in a survey format, it did not face any observer error or bias.Furthermore, items of the survey instrument reliability were measured by the internal consistency method (Hussey and Hussey, 1997). This study applied Cronbachs coefficient alpha to measure the internal reliability of survey, where a value of greater than 0.6 showed fair to very good reliability.Validity of the research was concerned with the extent of research findings which represented what was really happening (Collis and Hussey 2003). In order to avoid low validity, a pilot study was conducted before full scale data collection. Through the pilot study language or any other misconceptions was removed. The validity of each question into the main factors done by EFA was checked by the factor loading in the rotated component matrix, where a factor of greater than 0.5 showed that the question was valid.3.7 Ethical issuesEthical issues are very important to take into consideration when carrying out a survey. According to Neuman (1995), the researcher must protect human rights, control them and make sure that peoples interests are well respected. In this research, all ethical requirements were followed throughout all parts of the research. Before collecting data, permission was sought to the relevant institutions. The survey questionnaire along with supervisors letter was provided during personal visits. The participants were asked to participate on a voluntary basis and given the opportunity to withdraw from participation if they felt to do so. Participants were informed that when they have answered and returned the questionnaire, it was assumed t hat they agreed to participate in this study. All participants were given the assurance that the answers provided will be kept anonimous and strictly confidential.3.8 ConclusionThe chapter starts with an examination of the research process including the philosophical approaches of positivism and phenomenology leading to a debate on the nature of the current research resulting in a mixed method being decided on. Data for this study was collected from students of Lower VI through a survey questionnaire after the qualitative phase which consisted of focus groups interviews. Upon completion of the study, the data was given a code which was fed on to the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 for Windows. Lastly, the ethical issues involved in this study were also presented.